ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI IN POULTRY, KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE ABOUT ANTIMICROBIAL USE BY POULTRY VENDORS IN YOLA

ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI IN POULTRY, KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE ABOUT ANTIMICROBIAL USE BY POULTRY VENDORS IN YOLA

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SUMMARY

Escherichia coli is one of the most important food borne microorganisms that cause

disease in animals and humans worldwide. Not all strains cause disease, but they are

useful for testing of contamination of food and water and have been adopted as indicator

organism for antimicrobial drug resistance among commensal gram-negative organisms.

Antimicrobial drug resistance is associated with inappropriate use of veterinary

antimicrobials in food animals especially in poultry production. LBM is a place located in

markets in urban settlements where birds are housed and sold to the public. Poultry

vendors try to keep their birds healthy through the use of antimicrobials. Hence, the need

to study the resistance in E. coli isolated from these birds. Apparently healthy local

chickens sold for food at live bird markets in Yola North and Yola South LGAs were

examined for E. coli and their resistance to eight important antimicrobials. E. coli (n= 56)

were isolated using Eosine Methylene Blue (EMB) and identified with conventional

biochemical tests. Microbact 12 E was used to confirm 49 of the 56 isolates to be E. coli.

In addition, knowledge and practices of the poultry vendors in LBMs about

antimicrobials use was assessed. The results were as follows: 95.8% of the poultry

vendors in LBM had not attended any formal training on poultry production and health,

and 79.2% did not keep records of drugs they use. Hygiene score for cages showed 79%

of cages were mildly contaminated/ dusty, 54% of drugs they used were purchased from

the open markets without prescription and 68% of poultry vendors used their experience

to determine the dosage for treatment of their birds. Only 10.4% of vendors consulted a

veterinarian for the health needs of their poultry; 56% of poultry vendors did not practice

hand washing and 98% did not use protective clothing such as coveralls. All the 49 E.

coli isolates were resistant to Ceftiofur (100%), Erythromycin (100%) and

Sulfamethoxazole (100%). The Percent resistance to other drugs were as follows:

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Nalidixic acid (69.4%), Ciproflaxin (67.3%), Tetracycline (67.3%), Chloramphenicol

(49%), and Gentamicin (34.7%). All the isolates were multi drug resistant showing 16

different patterns with each isolate being resistant to at least four drugs. The high

prevalence of resistance among commensal E. coli in local chickens could be a significant

source of resistance genes to other bacteria that share the same environment which could

also be a source of direct contamination of poultry meat and LBM workers.

Key Words: Antimicrobial Resistance, E. coli, Poultry and Live bird Market

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) is a major global public health problem caused by

inappropriate use of antimicrobials. In veterinary medicine, AMR is considered both from

a human health perspective and from the perspective of protection of animal health and

welfare and the environment. This leads to concerns about a number of important impacts

in the area of public health, medical care, financial resources and food safety.1 Since the

introduction of antimicrobials as drugs against bacterial infections in humans and then

veterinary medicine, AMR has been recognized as an existing phenomenon.2,3 However,

there is an increased occurrence of AMR in bacteria4. These concerns have been raised

locally, nationally and internationally.5 During the past decade, the emergence of drug

resistant E. coli has dramatically increased. Consequently, the management of E. coli

infections in both humans and animals that was previously straight forward has become

more complicated. The risk of treatment failure is higher and cost of treatment

increasing.6,7

Inappropriate antimicrobial use in veterinary and human medicine is considered the most

important factor promoting the emergence, selection and dissemination of antimicrobial

resistant bacteria. 8 Antimicrobials usage selects for resistance not only in pathogenic

bacteria but also in non-pathogenic commensals. These commensals could serve as

reservoirs for resista


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