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1.1 Background of the Study
In contemporary organizations the yearning for
satisfaction is the most important issue on the part of the
employees. Need and environment playa pivotal role in the
determination of man's behaviour (Ujo, 2004), and Maslow
(1943) identified seven important needs of human beings rated
in their order of priority; these include physiological, safety,
love and affection, achievement, self esteem aesthetic and self
actualization needs. Ascending of these needs summed up in
one word, motivation involves needs, want and satisfaction,
motivation refers specifically "to the drive and effort to satisfy
an identified want or goal" satisfaction on the other hand
refers to "a state of contentment experienced when a particular
want is satisfied". The issue of job satisfaction has been given
much attention over the years. This is because the importance
of such a concept cannot be over emphasized. When there
came the emergence of large formal organizations which made
management more complex followed by a shift in dependent
variable, little attention was given to their impact upon job
satisfaction. The door was let open to consider the place of
motivation in relation to performance and production morale,
group dynamics democratic supervision and personal relations
because factors that are very important and have been shown
in contemporary studies as being related to job satisfaction
and increased productivity.
Ujo (2004) quoting Davis (1977) asserts; what employees
do when joining an organization is to make an unwritten
psychological contract with it, this contract is In addition to
the economic contract for wages and working conditions.
Employees agree to give a certain amount of work and loyalty,
but in return they demand more than economic rewards from
the system. They seek security, treatment as human beings
and rewarding relationship with people and support in
fulfilling expectations. If the organization honours only the
economic contract, employees will tend to loose interest in
their jobs. Following this trend, there is an agreement that job
satisfaction is the extent to which a job helps one attain his
important job values. This agreement can be described as
unity in diversity because the numerous definitions of job
satisfaction all pointed to the same view.
Salawu (2008) defined job satisfaction" as the extent or
degree a person is satisfied with the job he or she is doing, in
terms of the salary, self actualization, prestige of the job,
autonomy, control and condition of the job". Locke (1976),
defined job satisfaction " as the appraisal one's job as
attaining or allowing the attainment of one's important job
values providing these values are congruent with or help fulfill
one's basic needs". For Davis (1977) job satisfaction is "the
favourableness or unfavourableness with which employees
view their work, public servant like any other worker has a
bundle of needs. They need food, shelter, self esteem and self
actualization to mention but few. It is the urge to satisfy some
of these needs that motivate people to accept these jobs. The
attempt to take a job therefore, may have a variety of motives
which may essentially be complex and conflicting but the
ultimate goal is satisfaction.
Although, a great deal of Nigeria workers consider their
jobs as a means of providing them with the necessary money
to cater for their needs, cloth them and perhaps save part of it
or invest for their family members.
Job condition and employer, employee relationships are very
important since they affect the performance of workers. Every
organization, whether in private or public sector strives to
effectively elicit the best from the professionals, unfortunately,
it seems the desired goal has remained elusive. An in-depth
study of job satisfaction has shown that there are people who
do have job satisfaction in spite of their organization's
provisions of those conditions that are satisfactory. Studies
have also shown that workers achieve different levels of job
satisfaction at different period in their careers and at different
occupational levels. Closely related to this is the fact that
despite the growing sophistication in technology a great
percentage of Nigerian work-force seen dissatisfaction with
their jobs, lack of commitment and are always willing to leave
their' jobs for more promising and satisfaction ones. Incessant
conflicts, disagreement, protest, tension, distrust, trade
disputes, strikes etc. also characterized the actions of the
worker in different unions in Nigeria. This implies that the
various organizations are far from solving the workers
problem. It also signifies frustrating, unchallenging,
unsatisfying and bring job conditions.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Despite the ban on private practice by government, public
servant still engage in very serious private businesses and
some times use their official time for their personal business.
They sell, hawk, and even scramble for contracts and supplies
when they are supposed to be in their offices. The individuals
whose goals and aspirations are thwarted by the organization
becomes frustrated, develop feelings of low self-worth, become
apathetic, disinterested and tend to withdraw self commitment
in their work. Personal business outside the organization
becomes more important.
The unsatisfied worker may be physically present at their
place of work, but his mind and thought are off the job. The
increased death rates in our hospitals, poor performance of
students in school certificate, examination and low
productivity in the civil service are testimonies of poor
performance of public servants. There is no doubt that if
public servants have job satisfaction, they will perform better
in their job, the research will therefore examine the impacts of
job satisfaction on employees performance.
1.3 Research Questions
This study asks the following questions:
1. Is there any relationship between job satisfaction
and employees performance?
2. Can good incentive scheme bring about employee
job satisfaction for enhanced performance?
3. Is the working environment of any relevance in
ensuring employees job satisfaction?
4. Is recognition and reward factors that can bring
about job satisfaction and improved employees
5. Are there strategies that can bring about job satisfaction
from the job it self?
1.4 Objectives of The Study
The main objective of this study is to examine the impact
of job satisfaction on employee’s performance in the
public sector. The specific objectives are:
1. To examine how good incentive scheme brings
about job satisfaction and encourages the
employees to perform more.
2. To obtain the extent to which favorable working
environment can result to increase in performance.
3. To assess how recognition and rewards makes
employees to feel satisfied and improve their
4. To identify the factors that can lead to
dissatisfaction and affect employee’s performance.
5. To discuss strategies by which workers can get most
satisfaction from the job it self.
1.5 Significance Of The Study
Employee’s job satisfaction no doubt will encourage them
to increase their performances. Employees tend to put in their
best only when they are satisfied with their jobs. The issues of
satisfaction leads to enhanced performance can be argued to
be correct when one takes a look at our public workers. The
increase in minimum wage has resulted in improved service
Therefore, this research work which investigates the
impact of job satisfaction on employee’s performance is
significant in that it will reveal to the public the reason for the
improved performance by public servant particularly under
the Federal Government employment due to employee’s
It will enlighten the public on the importance of ensuring
that employee’s are given conditions that will make them to be
satisfied with their job if they can get the best in them.
It will serve as a guide to employers of labour on the need
to employ motivational strategies that can bring about
employees job satisfaction for great productivity performance.
It will serve as a guide to employees on how to make the
right demands from the employers that will be aimed at
ensuring they are satisfied with their condition of service.
The study will reveal the importance of motivating
employees as it is the only way they can gain job satisfaction
and this will make them to perform more and improve their
1.6 Research Hypothesis
This study will be guided by the following hypothesis:
H1: There is a relationship between job satisfaction and
H2: That job dissatisfaction affects the performance of
H3: That employee’s job satisfaction brings enhanced
1.7 Scope And Limitation Of The Study
The scope of this study is on the impact of job
satisfaction on employee’s performance and the factors related
to job satisfaction among public servants.
Public service comprises of numerous organizations both
paramilitary, civil services and even the armed forces
conducting a research on these.
A research work of this nature consumes enormous
resources and time. The researcher is faced with time and
financial constraints, also to obtain documents from
organizations is a difficult task. Therefore in view of this, the
research will be limited to journals, books and available
1.8 Scheme Of Chapters
The study is divided into Five Chapters.
Chapter One is the introductory part of the research. The
content of this chapter include: Background to the Study,
Statement of the Problem Research Questions, Objectives of
the Study, Significant of the Study, Research Hypothesis and
Scope and Limitation of the Study.
Chapter Two is on review of related literature. The areas
to be reviewed include the concept of job satisfaction, job
satisfaction theories, factors that bring about job satisfaction,
job satisfaction on employees performance and theoretical
Chapter Three is on the methodology for data collection.
The description survey method will be applied and primary
source of data collection will be used in collecting data for the
study. A questionnaire will serve as the instrument for data
Chapter Four is on data presentation interpretation and
analysis. Data presentation and analysis will be conducted
through the use of frequency tables and simple percentage
method, hypothesis stated will be tested through the Chi-
Chapter Five is on the summary and conclusion
recommendations of the research.
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