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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page - - - - -- - - - i
Declaration - - - - - - - - ii
Certification - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - v
Table of Contents - - - - - - - vii
Abstract - - - - - - - - xi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem - - - - - 6
1.3 Objectives of the Study - - - - - 9
1.4 Research Question - - - - - - 10
1.5 Research Hypothesis - - - - - 11
1.6 Significance of the Study - - - - - 11
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study - - - 12
1.8 Definition of Terms - - - - - 12
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.1.1 The Concept of Corruption - - - - 13
2.1.2 Types of Corruption - - - - - 15
2.1.3 Corruption in Different Sectors - - - - 17
2.1.4 Methods of Corruption - - - - - 20
2.1.5 Corruption and Socio Economic Development - 25
2.1.6 Causes of Corruption - - - - - 28
2.1.7 Preventing Corruption - - - - - 30
2.1.8Corruption and Development in Ikot Ekpene Local Government
- - - - - - - - - 32
2.2 Theoretical Framework - - - - - 36
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 INTRODUCTION - - - - - - 44
3.2 Research Design - - - - - - 44
3.3Study Area - - - - - - - 44
3.4 Population of the study - - - - - 45
3.5Sample size and Sampling Techniques - - 45
3.6 Data Gathering Instrument - - - - 47
3.7 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - 48
3.8 Statistical Tool for Hypotheses Testing - - 48
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.1 Data Presentation - - - - - - 50
4.2 Data analysis - - - - - - 63
4.2.1 Testing Hypothesis - - - - - 63
4.2.2 Decision Rule - - - - - - 64
4.3 Discussion of Findings - - - - - 72
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary - - - - -- - - 74
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - 76
5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - 77
References - - - - - - - - 81
Appendix I - - - - - -- - - 86
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 Age Distribution of Respondents - - 51
Table 2 Gender Distribution of Respondents - - - 52
Table 3 Educational qualification of Respondent - - 52
Table 4 Marital Status of the Respondents - - - 53
Table 5 Occupational Distribution of the respondents - 54
This research work was carried out to study the relationship between the level of corruption and the socio-economic development of Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area. The survey method was employed to carry out this research and questionnaire was the main instrument for gathering primary data, while the secondary data was obtained from textbooks, journals, website etc. structural-functionalism theory was considered appropriate for the study. Simple percentage was used in analyzing the data collected, while chi-square was used in testing the hypothesis. the study revealed that embezzlement, bribery and misappropriation of funds have impeded the socio-economic development of Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area. Corruption in the provision of services equally retarded the socio-economic development of Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area. The study recommended among others that all political appointee or officials should declare their assets annually by making annual assets return every January, because the provision that requires asset declaration every four years has given room for several loopholes which have been exploited by many public servants.
1.9 Background of the Study
The expediency for the creation of local government anywhere in the world stems from the need to facilitate development at the grassroots. The importance of local government is a function of its ability to generate a sense of belongingness, safety and satisfaction amongst its populace. All forms of government, regimes or political system have so far ensured the attainment of these goals, which is strategy for ensuring national administrative development and political efficacy is found in the concept and practice of local government. Whatever is the mode of government, local government has been essentially regarded as the path to and guarantor of national integration, administration and development.
In Nigeria socio-political context, with multiplicity of culture, diverse language and differentiated needs and means, the importance of such an organization in fostering the needed national consciousness, unity and relative uniformity as well as preservation of peculiar diversities cannot be over emphasized. Central to the creation of local government, however, is its ability to facilitate an avenue through which government and the people intermix, relate and more quickly than any other means to resolve issues that may have heated the system. Local government has been perceived as panacea for the diverse problems of diverse people with diverse culture.
As important as this tier of government has been, there seems to be some impediments that have been infringing on its performance and functions in recent times. Corruption seems to be the most damaging factor.
The social cankerworm called corruption has manifested in all facets of Nigeria public life. According to Nye, (1967,47),
Corruption in general is a form of dishonesty or criminal activity undertaken by a person or organization entrusted with a position of authority, often to acquire illicit benefits (Wikipedia).
Corruption remains a global challenge to the quest for development and welfare; it is a recurring theme in the African discourse. It has affected many countries all over the world especially the developing countries (Ibraheem, et. al. 2013). The Nigerian scenario and experience provides a useful or global illustration of the nuances surrounding corruption and how it interfaces with the state and the struggle for development and value re-orientation.
Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and a very important oil producer. However, it has been struggling to decrease unemployment, income inequality and it is dependence on oil (Africa Economic Outlook, 2015). Therefore, an axiom that Nigeria is richly endowed by providence with human and material resources critical for national development and advancement is toothless. This is because, it is widely accepted that the misappropriation of public funds asset by corrupt elites has been a major cause of Nigeria’s underdevelopment (Global witness, 2012). Therefore, Nigeria scores poorly on Transparency international’s corruption perception index as it gained two points in 2014 as compared to 2013 receiving a score of 27 on a scale from (most corrupt) to 100 (least corrupt). The country was therefore, ranked the 38th most corrupt.
Nigeria, is often classified as a neo-patrimonial prebendalism state and enabling corruption in the country (transparency international, 2014). Corruption on Nigeria manifest itself in different ways, both on a micro and macro level, and it occurs at all levels of society. According to the report by Amundsen (2010), the types of corruption in Nigeria are rent-seeking, embezzlement, conflict of interest, bribes and kickbacks, nepotism and cronyism, corruption in provision of services, political patronage, and electoral corruption among others.
The 1999 constitution of the federal Republic of Nigeria provides the motto of the country which is Unity and Faith, peace and Progress. This is because, every society needs to defined its values and engage in activities that will sustain those set of values (Igbuzor, 2013). However, there has been a lot of indiscipline in every face of life in Nigeria. Among them are. Lack of integrity, corruption, the get-rich-quick syndrome and pursuit of easy money which has reduced the dignity of labour religious intolerance, none respect for the country in terms of our institutions and national symbols. This necessitated the great need for value re-orientation. The Introduction of Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC)to check corruption in the country, and other agencies such as, Independent Corrupt practices and other related offences commission (ICPC) to ensure ethical and moral values by restoring the good moral values inherent in the traditional society. But Odey and Ashipun (2013), noted that most of these policies made by the Nigeria government are still altered by the custodian of power and authorities in the state. In the same vein, Ughorojeh (2008) lamented that while all successive governments have no time and care to identify and condemn the evil corruption plaguing the Nigerian economy, not much efforts have been made to combat it. Similarly, Onoge (1985), noted that corruption has persisted in the country despite efforts to rout it out, noting that its rate and scale increased enormously in the oil boom days.
Ikot Ekpene local government area of Akwa Ibom state which is an appendage of the Nigeria state has been a victim of this ugly disease called corruption. As such, all the forms of corruption indicated from the foregoing manifests in Ikot Ekpene local government area. Therefore, the focus of this research is to investigate the various manifestation of corruption on the socio-economic development Ikot Ekpene local government area and to proffer solutions to address the social cankerworm for sustainable socio-development.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The local government system predates Nigeria’s independence in 1960.the evolution of the political and economic fortunes of the country directly affect the nature and functions of the local government in view of its conception as a veritable tool for rural development. Okoli (2005) delineated the various attempts made at various stages of national development to make the system effective and efficient. From the analysis, the period between 1976 and 1999 provide the hallmark of change and alteration that established the uniformity in the local government structure and functions.it gained status as the third tiers of government with definite measures of checks and balances that spells out the authority, financial, personnel, political and ecological relationship with the other tiers of government.
The most salient feature of the reforms of the 1999 constitution of the Federal republic of Nigeria is the direct funding of local governments from the federation account. Obviously, the local government system through the various reforms gained operational and financial autonomy to enable it achieves its goals. Unfortunately, local governments all over Nigeria have been identified as failures. This growing concern has led to the suggestion for its scrapping by some analysts.
Recently, the Nigeria government has set up strategy or fight against corruption under the leadership of his Excellency Mohammadu Buhari with stringent penalties put in place for offenders. But these stringent penalties have not been able to curtail the level of corruption in Nigeria especially in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area.
Corruption is a deep rooted problem which has taken its toll on the government, people, infrastructure, business and life of the average Nigerian. Corruption in Nigerian especially in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area has deeply entrenched/ingrained in the national ethics, politics, civil society, public and private sectors and has been deeply permeated by a pervasive and debilitating culture so much that it is best regarded as being institutionalized, until the recent fight against it. The longtime reign of corruption in the country has impacted negatively on economic growth and has decayed or deteriorated our cultured values in the state.
Corruption constitutes a cankerworm that has eaten deep into the very fabric of the Nigeria’s social system. It has assumed a monumental height as the nation is ranked as one of the most corrupt nations in the world. These corrupt practices stem from the various callous, greedy, self-motivated and self-seeking attitudes of our leaders who are only interested in serving their pockets rather than serving the people. Thus, the negative perception of Nigeria persists in spite of the several emphases on anti-corruption and integrity promotion policies and strategies by successive governments. It has therefore deteriorated the cherished and accepted Standards and Cultural Values in the state. The policies and programmes such as, Federal Character, National Youth Service Corps (NYSC), Unity Secondary schools, National Sports, National Symbols, Festivals, National ethical re-orientation, War Against Indiscipline (WAI), Directorate of Social Administration, Self Reliance, Economic Recovery and Social Justice (MAMSER), National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (NEEDS), Youth Enterprise with innovation in Nigeria, and N-power. The numerous efforts by the government towards values orientation and national integration however, failed partially or totally. This is partly as a result of corruption as noted by Njoke that the malady of corruption has polluted the character and personality of every Nigerian, doubt why, seemingly responsible Nigerians within the corridor of powers gather around themselves sycophants and praise singers. Failed moral training of children gave birth to corruption in our society. Thus, prevailing high level of corruption in the country calls for stringent war against it.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
At the end of this research, the under stated objectives will be achieved from the study. They include:
· To examine the level of embezzlement and misappropriation of public fund by politicians into their private accounts at the expense of suffering masses and it effects on the socio economic development of Ikot Ekpene LGA.
· To asses the influence of corruption in provision of service and it effects on the socio economic development of Ikot Ekpene L G A
· To find out if bribery has a role to play on the socio economic development of Ikot Ekpene LGA.
· To know if actually favoritism and nepotism have a role to play on the socio economic development of Ikot Ekpene LGA
1.4 Research Question
The following research questions will aid and act as the guide in the study
- Did embezzlement and misappropriation of public funds undermine the socio economic development of Ikot Ekpene LGA?
- Has corruption in provision of service mar the socio economic development of Ikot Ekpene LGA?
- What role has bribery play in the socio economic development of Ikot Ekpene LGA?
- Has favoritism an nepotism undermined the socio economic development of Ikot Ekpene LGA?.
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Two hypothesis were formulated as follow:
1. Misappropriation of funds is likely to undermine the socio-economic development of Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area
2. Corruption by public officers tend to impair the socio-economic development of Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area
1.6 Significance of the Study
The significance of this study to researchers, policy makers/executors and general public cannot be over stressed. This study is very significant as it contributes to the pool of knowledge in academic, policy makers, our elites and the people, research students and teachers. It will give and render relevant historical facts about corruption and its implications on socio economic development as well as the implications of embezzlement.
This will serve as a useful resource for future researchers, students of political science and public administration will also find this work useful.
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