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1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Every society in Nigeria dreams of a stable government; but this has being just a dream that have never come true. The issue of God fatherism plays a negative role in the growth and development of Nigeria. As the day goes by; the level of political godfathers continues to grow.
God fatherism in Nigeria is now a very scary phenomenon in the mind and lives of the people of Nigeria; making its mark in the political history of Nigeria; the issue of god fatherism became rampart in the year 2007. According to Omotola (2007:139), Godfatherism in Nigeria, particularly in its current form and character, is distributive.
God fatherism has become a kind of hereditary; from one political administration to another. Now the question is; why do we have a bad political administration in Nigeria? The answer is quiet simple; a corrupt administration will hand over to another administration that will cover their poor performance in their administration. Candidate that are not qualified assume all the political offices in Nigeria today because of their god fathers. In Nigeria today the high level of indecisiveness in government is significantly high because the person in the office cannot take decision on his own without the consent of his godfather.
The level of god fatherism in Abia state is on the high side; among all the states in the eastern part of Nigeria, Abia state has the lowest level of good infrastructure. This is a state that is entitled to allocation from the federal government of Nigeria on monthly bases; yet no development in most of the local government of Abia state. The people of Abia state are in continuous plead for the federal government of Nigeria to intercede on their behave.
Take ikwuano for instance; the road that leads to Akwa ibom state; is in a very bad shape; as at 2015 until date, nothing has been done concerning the road. Fund was made available by the federal government of Nigeria concerning the iwuano road; but the corrupt political godfathers with their negative influence on the governor of Abia state brought the project to nil.
These political godfathers have a lot of security connections; they are very wealthy and well respected in the society at the local government and the state level.
Election in Nigeria today are no longer of the people’s choice, it has become the choices of the various political god fathers in Nigeria. A candidate of a stronger political godfather wins the election.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The federal government of Nigeria is not only fighting corruption; the issue of godfatherism is the major cause of corruption in Nigeria; Nigerians believed that the democracy is in a way better than the time of the military era because they believe every human has the right to choose and make decision but the problem here is the issue of godfatherism. According to Okoli and Onah (2002), they submitted a development that involves progression, movement and advancement towards something better. There have being a lot of policy reversal including human right abuse, economic bondage and high level of corruption in Abia State.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The general objective of the study is to examine the causes and effects of godfatherism and party politics on Nigerian democracy. The specific objectives include, to:
i. Identify the remote and immediate causes of godfatherism and party politics in Abia State.
ii. Expose the negative effects of godfatherism on the socio-economic lives of the citizens of Abia state.
iii. Proffer solutions to the identified problems towards enhancing a just and an egalitarian society in Abia state.
1.4 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study examines the causes and effects of godfatherism in Nigeria from 2003- 2007 to 2016. The research work will look at both the political effect of godfatherism, the negative effect of godfatherism on the level of infrastructure and how it affects the lives of the citizens in Abia State.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The research work is considered a very important one as it will reveal the concept of godfatherism; the causes of godfatherism; the study will also identify the effects of godfatherism on the lives of the citizens of Abia state. Finally the study will offer an assistance to the federal government of Nigeria in the fight against godfatherism.
1.6 LIMITATION OF STUDY
FINANCIAL CONSTRAINTS: the researcher could not cover the whole of Abia state due to insufficient funds; but the areas covered by the researcher was able to provide meaningful information concerning the effect of godfatherism in Nigeria politics.
TIME CONSTRAINTS: the research as a student will participate in other departmental activities like presentation of seminar, carrying out assignment given by other departmental lecturers; but the research student was able to meet up with the time allocated for the of the research work to be completed.
1.7 RESEARCH QUESTION
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study.
i. What are the remote and immediate causes of godfatherism and party politics in Abia State?
ii. Does godfatherism and party politics affect the socio-economic Lives of the citizens of Abia?
iii. How can these negative monsters be eradicated in Abia state?
IV Does godfatherism has any significant effect on the lives of the people of Abia state?
1.8 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: godfatherism has no significant effect on the level of corruption in Abia State.
H1: godfatherism has significant effect on the level of corruption in Abia State.
H0: godfatherism and politics have no significant effect on the socio-economic lives of the citizens of Abia State.
H1: godfatherism and politics has significant effect on the socio-economic lives of the citizens of Abia State.
1.9 THEORITICAL FRAME WORK
This work adopts the ‘economy of affection’ and the ‘social exchange’ theories as explicited by (Hyden, 2006) in explaining the findings of the research. The theory is considered apt because it explains the formation, structure and modes of sustenance of both formal and informal institutions and associations in contemporary Africa. The theory elaborates on how weaknesses of the state and formal institutions reinforce people’s confidence in informal institutions one of which being godfatherism. Although the origin of godfatherism can be located in the history of Ibadan, its reaffirmation is explainable through the seminal work of Lucas (1998). The use of despotic measures by the military regimes of Ibrahim Babangida and Sani Abacha to ban many old politicians without following up with a proper restructuring of the polity created a political class without any normative principle nor reliance on the electorate for political ascendancy.
1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS
GODFATHER: The godfather is popularly known by the Hausa’s as “Maigida” (Master of the house). The word Maigida goes beyond it literal meaning. Abner (1971), Polly (1966) and Pally (2004) used the term in their works to refer to those who provided brokerage services to Hausa traders in transit in different parts of West Africa. In the Yoruba society godfather is referred to as “Baba Kekere” (the small great father). “Baba Isale” the father of the underground world), or Baba Nigbejo (a great helper in time of trouble); Dickson (2003) also noted that the philosophy of godfather is grounded in the sociology of traditional Igbo society.
Abner, C. (1965): The Social Organization of Credit in a West African Cattle Market. Zaria: ABU University Press. Ademola, A. (2009): Ethnicity, Party Politics and Democracy in Nigeria: People’s Democratic Party as Agent of Consolidation. Studies Tribes Tribals 7(1). Ademolukun, L. (2000): Politicians and Administrators under the Presidential System, Ibadan: Spectrum Books. Agbaje, A. (1999): Political Parties and Pressure Groups. Ikeja: Malthouse Press Ltd. Azeez, A. (2004): The Dynamics of Ethnic Politics and Democratic Consideration in Nigeria: A Prognosis, Ibadan: Stirring-Horden Publishers. Bonnie, A and Kehinde, B. (2007): Public Service and democracy in Developing Societies: The Nigeria Experience Journal of Social Science 15(2). Champion Newspaper June 8th, 2003. Dickson, D. (2003): A case of Godfatherism: http:www.thirdayonline.com/archiere/2003/08/20030833conol.htm. http://www/inecnigeria.com http://allafrican.com Jonathan, E. G. (2010): Electoral Integrity in 2011 and beyond. National Wide Broadcast to Mark Democracy Day, in
http.//allafrica.com/stones/201005310452 html.retrieved it Nov.2010. Joseph, R. (1991): Democracy and Prebendal Politics in Nigeria: The Rise and Fall of the Second Republic. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Ltd. Nigeria Tribune, April 23rd, 2003.
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