EXAMINATION OF NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY IN BUILDING MATERIAL IN KATSINA STATE USING GAMMA RAY SPECTROSCOPY (A CASE STUDY OF CEMENT BLOCK)

EXAMINATION OF NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY IN BUILDING MATERIAL IN KATSINA STATE USING GAMMA RAY SPECTROSCOPY (A CASE STUDY OF CEMENT BLOCK)

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Abstract
Twenty Concrete Blocks from (20) different Local Governments in Katsina state was
measured using Gamma Ray Spectroscopy with NaI (TL) detector. Three naturally Occurring
Radionuclides and their activity concentrations were determined, are 40K 226Ra, and 232Th.
Their activity Concentrations ranges from 40K 46.11 ± 826.59 to 46.11± 8.55 Bq/kg, (226Ra)
ranged from10.19 ± 2.43Bq/kg to 75.09 ± 4.98 Bq/kg and (232Th) ranged from 2.77 ±
9.59Bq/kg to 123.49 ± 9.35Bq/kg respectively. The highest value also determined from 40K
was (826.59 ± 4.82Bq/kg), the highest value of 226Ra was 75.09 ± 4.98Bq/kg , the highest
value for (232Th) is 123.49 ± 9.35 Bq/kg respectively. The Radium Equivalent mean value
was obtained from the measurement ranged from (34.8 ± 1.59 to 411.26nGT/h), The
absorbed dose rate in air with its mean value was obtained, ranges from (147.16 ±
3.55nGy/h). The limit set in the OECD report (370Bq/kg) and UNSCEAR, 2000 (24 to
160nGy/h). The annual effective dose obtained, ranges from 0.04 ± 0.001 to 0.20 ±
0.0001mSv/y, with mean value 0.187 ± 0.0005mSv/y. Recommended limit 0.460 mSv/y set
by ICRP, 2007 for terrestrial radiation. The evident that the Results give lower value when
compared with 1mSv/y for Public exposure (ICRP, 2007).
vi
Table of Contents
Title page - - - - - - - - - i
Certification - - - - - - - - - ii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgements - - - - - - - - iv
Abstract - - - - - - - - - v
Table of content (TC) - - - - - - - - vi
List of tables (LT) - - - - - - - - - x
List of figure - - - - - - - - - xi
List of abbreviation - - - - - - - - xii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.0: Introduction - - - - - - - - 1
1.1: Background of the study - - - - - - 1
1.2.0: Natural Radioactivity in the Environment - - - - 4
1.2.1: Potassium -40 (40K) - - - - - - - 4
1.2.2: Uranium Decay Series - - - - - - 4
1.2.3: Thorium Decay Series- - - - - - - 5
1.2.4: Radon - - - - - - - - - 5
1.3.0: NORM in Building Materials - - - - - 5
1.4.0: Component of Cement Block - - - - - - 7
1.4.1: Sand - - - - - - - - - 7
1.4.2: Cement - - - - - - - - 7
1.4.3: Gravel Aggregate - - - - - - - 8
vii
1.4.4: Concrete - - - - - - - - 9
1.5.0: Statement of the problems - - - - - - 9
1.6: Aims and Objectives - - - - - - - 10
1.7: Significant of the Study - - - - - - 11
1.8: Scope and Limitation of the study - - - - - 11
1.9: limitations - - - - - - - - 11
1.10: List of local Government in Katsina State - - - 12
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0: Literature review - -- - - - - - 14
2.1: History - - - - - - - - 14
2.2: Sources of Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) - 16
2.2.1: Cosmic radiation - - - - - - - 16
2.2.2: Terrestrial radiation - - - - - - - 18
2.2.3: Man-made sources - - - - - - 19
2.2.4: Members of the public - - - - - - 19
2.2.5: Occupationally exposed individuals - - - - - 20
2.3: NORMS Isotopes - - - - - - - 20
2.4: Health Risk of Norms - - - - - - - 21
2.4.1: Standard and regulations of radiation exposure - - - 23
2.5: Types of Radioactive decay - - - - - - 25
2.5.1: Alpha particles decay - - - - - - - 25
2.5.2: Beta decay - - - - - - - - 26
2.5.3: Gamma decay - - - - - - - - 26
viii
2.6: Gamma – ray interaction with matter - - - - - 26
2.6.1: Photo electric effects - - - - - - - 27
2.6.2: Campton scattering - - - - - - - 28
2.6.3: Pair Production - - - - - - - 29
2.6.4: Biological effects of Radiation - - - - - 29
2.6.5: Radium – 226 (226Ra) - - - - - - 30
2.6.6: Potassium-40 (40K) - - - - - - - 31
2.6.7: Thorium-232 (232Th) - - - - - - - 32
2.6.8: Cancer Treatment - - --- - - - - 33
2.7.0: Review on related literature - - - - - - 33
CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHOD
3.0: Materials and Method - - - - - - 38
3.1.0: Material - - - - - - - - 38
3.2.0: Method of making cement blocks - - - - - - 38
3.2.1: Size and structure of cement blocks - - - - - 39
3.3: Samples Collection - - - - - - - 40
3.4: Samples preparation - - - - - - - 41
3.5: Energy Calibration of Sodium Iodide Thallium - - -
Gamma spectroscopy system - - - - - - 44
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.0: Result and Discussion - - - - - - - 46
4.1: Experimental Result - - - - - - - 46
ix
4.2: Activity analysis - - - - - - - 50
4.2.1: The radium equivalent - - - - - - 50
4.2.2: Absorbed dose in Air - - - - - - - 50
4.2.3: Annual Effective Dose Rate - - - - - - 51
4.3: Statistical analysis of the samples- - - - - - 53
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.0: Conclusion and Recommendations - - - - - 59
5.1: Conclusion - - - - - - - - - 59
5.2: Limitations - - - - - - - - 59
5.3: Recommendations - - - - - - - 60
REFERENCES - - - - - - - - 61
APPENDICES - - - - - - - - 65
x
List of Tables
Table 2.1: The world wide average annual effective doses for the various sources. 18
Table 3.1: Sample collection industries and their respective locations 41
Table 3.2: weight of the Samples 44
Table 4.1: Activity concentration of radionuclides concrete block
measured in CPS - - - - - - - 47
Table 4.2: Activity concentration of radionuclides in concrete block
measured in Bq/kg - - - - - - 47
Table 4.3: Calculated values of radium equivalent, absorbed dose rate and annual
effective dose from the samples - - - - - 52
Table 4.4: Descriptive statistics for concentration of 40K across the twenty
Samples - - - - - - - - 54
Table 4.5: Descriptive statistics for concentration of 226Ra across the twenty
Samples - - - - - - - - 54
Table 4.6: Descriptive statistics for concentration of 232Th across the twenty
Samples - - - - - - - - 55
Table 4.7: The correlation among the concentration of the three radionuclides
(40K, 226Ra and 232Th) - - - - - - 55
Table 4.8: t- test paired two samples for mean (concentrations of 40K and 226Ra) 55
Table 4.9: t- test paired two samples for mean (concentrations of 40K and232Th) 56
Table 4.10: t- test paired two samples for mean (concentrations of 226Ra and232Th) 56
Table 4.11: summary statistics of the twenty (20) samples - - - 57
Table 4.12: two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the Samples and
Concentration of the three radionuclides - - - - - 57
xi
List f Figures
Figure 1.1: Map of Katsina State showing all local governments were the samples
collected - - - - - - - - - 12
Figure 2.1: the mechanism of photoelectric absorption and the emission of fluorescent
X- rays - - - - - - - - 28
Figure 3.1: A typical Building using Cement blocks (Size: 9 inch.) - - - 40
Figure 3.2: Some of the sealed samples - - - - - - 42
Figure 3.3: Gamma ray spectrometer used in the analysis - - - 40
Figure 3.4: Typical Gamma ray spectrum output (MAESTRO SOFT WARE) - - - - - 45
Figure 4.1: Graph of measured activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th - - - 49
Figure 4.2: Graph of absorbed dose against sample number - - - - 53
xii
List of Abbreviation
UNSCEAR - United Nation Scientific Committee on the effects of atomic radiation
IAEA - International Atomic Energy Agency
ICRP - International Commission for Radiological Protection
NORM – Natural occurring radioactive material
TENORM – Technological enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials
238U – uranium – 238
232Th – Thorium – 232
40K – potassium -40
222Rn - radon 222
226Ra – radium -226
β – beta
α- alpha
Mev – mega electrovolt
113Cd – cadmium -113
114 Ce- caesium -114
Kev- kilo electron volt
NaI (TI) – sodium iodide (thallium)
nGy/h –nano gray per hour


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