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1.1 Background of the study
It has been known throughout history that garlic has always been in use worldwide by various societies, ranging from different scientists, herbalists, traditionalists and the people for combating diseases. Garlic which is the common name having a scientific name with the Genus Allium sativum having a bulb shape and from the Lilaceae family. Louis Pasteur was the first to describe the antibacterial effect of Garlic against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial (Murunga et al., 2015), such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp, Streptococcus spp, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis. The therapeutic use of garlic has been known to have a potent medicinal value for years to different microorganisms (Verma et al., 2015), both anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, antiseptic and lots of them. The antibacterial effect of it, mostly depends on allicin, which is produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of allicin after cutting and crushing of the cloves (Verma et al., 2015). It has a range of potential target which starts by inhibiting the acetyl CoA forming system which inhibits DNA and protein synthesis and having a whole range of biological properties (Arora, 1999). Garlic can be consumed fresh and also in pills, capsules and extracts, it’s been seen that garlic is a wonderful natural plant having the property of empowering the immune system.
Thermal injuries are one of the most common and confounding forms of serious injuries, the risk is higher in cutaneous and systemic infections and this burn is higher in patients suffering from stern thermal wounds. The presence of the bacterial on this wounds which leads to the spread of the pathogen to other parts of the body leading to delayed wound healing in the infected site leading to the primary cause of morbidity and mortality (Bachir and Abouni, 2015). The purpose of this study is to detect the in vitro activity of Garlic extract in the growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and how it can be isolated from burnt wounds on the skin.
Staphylococcus aureus is a type of bacteria. It stains Gram positive and is non-motile small round shaped or non-motile cocci. It is frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin. Stapyloccocus aureus belongs to the family Staphylococcaceae. It infects all known mammalian species, including humans. Staphylococcus aureus was first identified in 1880 in Aberdeen, Scotland by surgeon Sir Alexander Ogston in pus from a surgical abscess in knee joint (Greenwood et al., 2006). S. aureus can cause a range of illness, from minor skin infection to life threatening diseases.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
Almost all antibiotics are subjected to the problem of bacteria resistance. Therefore, newer herbal antibacterial compounds from plants and their semi-synthetic derivatives are under investigation to overcome the antibiotic resistance, Raw garlic is a potent natural antibiotic that works differently than modern antibiotics and kills some strains of bacteria, like Staphylococcus aureus, that have become immune or resistant to modern antibiotics (Daka, 2011). The bactericidal effect of garlic might be due to the structural characteristics of organisms which play a role in the bacterial susceptibility to garlic constituents particularly S. aureus, the lipid content of the membranes might have an effect on the permeability of allicin and other garlic constituents. Hence this phenomenon’s may favor the destruction of the cell wall and genetic materials of S. aureus. Garlic is active even against organisms that have become resistant to antibiotics (Atheer, 2004).
1.3 JUSTIFICATION OF THE RESEARCH
Determining the antibacterial effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on bacteria will help those who cannot afford the normal antibiotics prescribed by our clinicians to be able to purchase this garlic, seeing that its potency is remarkable. And this will help in the reduction of certain Gram-positive bacteria that causes damage when they become opportunistic in the skin. It will also help the world in general to know the economical and biological importance of Allium sativum.
With attention to widespread usage of garlic in curing of various illnesses particularly infectious diseases, there is an absence of scientific investigation of application of this medicinal plant in wound healing (Baliga et al., 2011). Most of the therapeutic effects of garlic are known to be because of its sulphur containing compounds which are Allicin and Methyl sulphonyl methane which has an excellent healing accelerating efficacy and antimicrobial potency (Nkengfack et al., 2002). Most methyl sulphonyl methane is also identified as dimethyl sulphone, which is a naturally occurring sulphur compound found in variety of foods, including onions and garlic. This methyl suphonyl methane is an important nutrient and is essential for the maintenance of connective tissues, joint function and hormone balance (Jonkers et al., 2010). Sulphur is very important for the formation of collagen and is a major component in the synthesis of cartilage and connective tissues (Ellmore et al., 1999). It is also an essential part of keratin which is necessary for the maintenance of the healthy situation of the skin, hair and nails, additionally it decreases scar tissue by changing the cross linking process in collagen to allow tissue repair and healing to take place on the burnt wounds (Ellmore et al., 1999).
1.4 AIM AND OBJECTIVES:
To determine the Invitro antibacterial effect of Garlic on Staphylococcus aureus isolated from burn wounds.
The specific objectives were to
1. Isolate and characterize Staphylococcus aureus from burn wound.
2. Prepare aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Allium sativum
3. Determine the Phytochemicals present in the extracts
4. Determine the antibacterial activity using agar well diffusion method.
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