DETECTION OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE AND VIRULENT GENES IN ENTEROCOCCI ISOLATED FROM WATER SAMPLES IN ZARIA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA.

DETECTION OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE AND VIRULENT GENES IN ENTEROCOCCI ISOLATED FROM WATER SAMPLES IN ZARIA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA.

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  • Major Attributes are Abstract, All Chapters, Figures, Appendix, References.
  • Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE.
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ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to isolate, identify and analyse the distribution of

Enterococci,carry out antibiotic susceptibility test and molecularly detect the presence

of some virulent and antibiotic resistantgenes in the Enterococci isolated from water

samples in Zaria, Kaduna state. A total of two hundred and forty water samples were

collected from different sources including wells, boreholes, tap and vended water

(mairuwa). A total of34Enterococciwere isolated, characterized and identified. The

prevalence ofEnterococcus avium and Enterococcus gallinarum in water were 58% and

24% respectively while Enterococcus mundtii and Enterococcus cecorum had 12% and

6%each. The mean frequency distribution was calculated using the one way ANOVA

and based on this, the highest source of contamination was from wells, while vended

water (mairuwa) had the least. Zaria city had the highest Enterococci isolates (44%)

followed by Samaru (35%) and then Sabon gari (21%). Isolates had resistanceto the

following antibiotics, Ampicillin 79% (10µg), Vancomycin 62%(30µg), Erythromycin

53%, (15µg), Chloramphenicol 12%, (10µg), Ciprofloxacin 12% (30µg), Tetracycline

12%, (12µg) and Gentamicin 3% (10µg). The result of the molecularscreening for van

A,van B and cyl A genes showed the absence of all the genes in the isolates.The result

of the present study indicatesthat the contamination of water with Enterococci could

predispose to various health issues and pose serious therapeutic challenges due to the

presence of resistance to antibiotics.The provision of proper water management

systems and treated safe water supply to the communities cannot be overemphasized.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0                               INTRODUCTION

Bacteria of the genus Enterococcusor enterococci (formerly the „faecal‟ or

Lance field group D streptococci) are ubiquitous microorganisms, but have a

predominant habitat of the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. Enterococcus

is a genus of lactic acid bacteria of the Phylum Firmicutes. Enterococci are Gram-

positive cocci that often occur in pairs (diplococci) or short chains, and are difficult to

distinguish from streptococci on phy


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