EVALUATION OF THE PREVENTIVE EFFECT OF DIETARY INCLUSION OF HYPHAENE THEBAICA FRUIT (LINN) ON N-METHYL-N-NITROSOUREA-INDUCED COLON CARCINOGENESIS IN MALE WISTAR RATS

EVALUATION OF THE PREVENTIVE EFFECT OF DIETARY INCLUSION OF HYPHAENE THEBAICA FRUIT (LINN) ON N-METHYL-N-NITROSOUREA-INDUCED COLON CARCINOGENESIS IN MALE WISTAR RATS

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ABSTRACT

The preventive effect of dietary inclusion of Hyphaene thebaica fruit at 0%, 2.5%, 5% and

10% on colon carcinogenesis initiated with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) induction for

twelve (12) weeks was evaluated. After twelve (12) weeks of treatment, the colon and liver of

rats administered H. thebaica fruit included diet showed a significant (p<0.05) increase in the

activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes (catalase and superoxide dismutase) when

compared with MNU control group. A dose-dependent decrease in the extent of lipid

peroxidation was observed in the colon and liver of dietary inclusion of H. thebaica fruit

treated groups. A significant (p<0.05) increase in packed cell volume, haemoglobin count,

red blood cell, platelet level were observed in dietary inclusion of H. thebaica fruit treated

groups when compared with MNU control group, while a significant (p<0.05) decrease in

white blood cell, neutrophil and lymphocyte concentration were observed in dietary inclusion

of H. thebaica fruit treated groups when compared with MNU control group. Histological

observation of colon and liver tissue sections showed focal area of inflammatory cells in the

MNU control group, while dietary inclusion ofH. thebaica fruit fed groups, showed milder to

no tissue damage, while a statistically significant (p<0.05) decrease in Carcino-Embryonic

Antigen (CEA) levels was observed in the group fed with dietary inclusion of H. thebaica

fruit compared with MNU control group. Immunohistochemical observation of the colon

tissue sections showed no expression of Mut L-Homolog gene (MLH1) in MNU control

group, while mild to moderate expression ofMLH1 in the groups treated with dietary

inclusion of H. thebaica fruit. These results indicate the positive potential of dietary inclusion

of H. thebaica fruit to prevent oxidative stress caused by free radical generation and hence,

preventing the process of chemically induced colon carcinogenesis by boosting the

endogenous antioxidant system. A better preventive effect was observed in the group treated

with highest percentage of dietary inclusion ofH. thebaica fruit (10% of H. thebaica fruit).

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. An estimated 14.1million new cancer cases

occurred in 2012 (GLOBOCAN, 2012). Lung, female breast, colorectal and stomach cancers

accounted for more than 40% of all cases diagnosed worldwide (GLOBOCAN, 2012).


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