Get the complete project »
- The Complete Research Material is averagely 52 pages long and it is in Ms Word Format, it has 1-5 Chapters.
- Major Attributes are Abstract, All Chapters, Figures, Appendix, References.
- Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE.
- Full Access Fee: ₦4,000
1.1 Background of the study
Antiseptics and disinfectants are used extensively in hospitals and other health care settings for a variety of topical and hard-surface applications. In particular, they are an essential part of infection control practices and aid in the prevention of nosocomial infections. Mounting concerns over the potential for microbial contamination and infection risks in the food and general consumer markets have also led to increased use of antiseptics and disinfectants by the general public. A wide variety of active chemical agents (or “biocides”) are found in these products, many of which have been used for hundreds of years for antisepsis, disinfection, and preservation. Despite this, less is known about the mode of action of these active agents than about antibiotics. In general, biocides have a broader spectrum of activity than antibiotics, and, while antibiotics tend to have specific intracellular targets, biocides may have multiple targets. The widespread use of antiseptic and disinfectant products has prompted some speculation on the development of microbial resistance, in particular crossresistance to antibiotics.
Chlorinated compounds are often used in dental clinics and laboratory environment due to their broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, low toxicity, low cost and efficacy in biofilms.1 However, they corrode metals and are inactivated by organic matter at high concentrations. A slow-release chlorine compound, sodium dichloroisocyanurate is used in healthcare settings; however, it too is corrosive. Slow-release chlorine dioxide disinfectants have been developed containing corrosion inhibitors which are extensively used in the industrial settings.
The use of chlorine dioxide containing products in dentistry has been explored. Studies have shown that in mouthrinses it is effective for the management of chronic atrophic candidiasis, denture stomatitis, and the control of plaque accumulation, periodontal pathogens and oral malodor.2-5 The efficacy of sodium dichloroisocyanurate for disinfection of radiographic films and irreversible hydrocolloid impression material has also been established.6,7 none of the above studies have tested the efficacy of these disinfectants against Mycobacteria and Hepatitis B virus. In addition, anti hepatitis B virus activity of chlorine dioxide has not been established.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Chlorination of bacteria by active chlorine compounds with the aim of killing them occurs both in a variety of disinfection processes and, in vivo, in the myeloperoxidase-hypochlorite system that operates within phagolysosomes of human leuco-cytes.8–10 Investigations on the main long-lived oxidant produced by granulocytes and monocytes, N-chlorotaurine (NCT),11,12 revealed new insights in the consequences of the chlorination of pathogens. Incubation for a sublethal time of 1min in 1% NCT solution caused a lag of regrowth (postantibiotic effect) of bacteria and a loss of virulence of highly encapsulated staphylococci and streptococci, demonstrated in the mouse peritonitis model.13,14 In addition, bacteria chlorinated by the myeloperoxidase system lost their ability to induce nitric oxide and tumour necrosis factor-a in macrophages.
These findings prompted us to establish methods of detection and quantification of chlorination of bacterial surfaces and to perform the first systematic examination of chlorine covers on Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and Candida albicans.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The main objective of the study is to assess the antimicrobial properties of chlorine and alcohol disinfectants.
This study compares the antimicrobial effect of a chlorine dioxide and a chlorine generating disinfectant on the contaminants commonly present on dental instruments and in the dental surgery.
1.4 Significance/ Justifications of the study
This study will help to add to the existing knowledge in this area of research. It will be of significance in the health sector as it will reduce the effects and spread of bacteria on man. It will provide insightful information on individuals in order to educate them on the properties of chlorine and alcohol disinfectants.
This study will also help the educational sector, as it could be used as a source material to carryout further research related to this study.
You either get what you want or your money back. T&C Apply
You can find more project topics easily, just search
SIMILAR MICROBIOLOGY FINAL YEAR PROJECT RESEARCH TOPICS
» ABSTRACTNunu is Nigerian locally fermented milk product commonly prepared by Hausa/Fulani cattle rearers. It’s mostly available in the Northern part...Continue Reading »
2. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF HONEY ON Staphylococcus aureusEscherichia coli and Streptococcus pyogen ISOLATED FROM WOUND» ABSTRACT Antibacterial activity of honey obtained from two different locations in Enugu State (Nsukka & Ugwuaji) Nigeria on Staphylococcus aureus,...Continue Reading »
» CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION The use of the leaves, stem and bark of the plants for medicinal purposes is an age long practice. Also in the modern tim...Continue Reading »
» BSTRACTJuice was extracted from banana (Musa sapientum) pulp with the addition of lemon juice and was inoculated with Baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces c...Continue Reading »
» TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Title Pages Cover page Title Page Declaration Certification Dedication Acknowledgement Abstract Table of Contents List of Ta...Continue Reading »
6. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF CRUDE OIL AND KEROSENE ON THE GROWTH OF NITRIFYING BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM SOIL» ABSTRACTCrude oil and kerosene have useful applications in the society and are, therefore, used as sources of income and energy. However, the spills a...Continue Reading »
» CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION Ugba also called ukpaka is a popular food delicacy in Nigeria especially among Ibo ethnic group. It is rich in protein an...Continue Reading »
8. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF HONEY ON Staphylococcus aureusEscherichia coli and Streptococcus pyogen ISOLATED FROM WOUND» ABSTRACT Antibacterial activity of honey obtained from two different locations in Enugu State (Nsukka & Ugwuaji) Nigeria on Staphylococcus aureus,...Continue Reading »
9. PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND SENSORY EVALUATION OF COOKIES PRODUCED FROM BLENDS OF MALTED SORGHUM, SPROUTED BLACK BEANS AND COOKED COCOYAM FLOUR, PROXIMATE ANAL...» CHAPTER ONE 1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY Over the years the production of cookies of various types has improved with the advancement of new technology in m...Continue Reading »
» CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important avian viral diseases because of its high economic impact on the poult...Continue Reading »