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This study was designed to investigate co-infection of Schistosoma haematobium and
Escherichia coli in pupils attending some selected primary schools in Zaria, Nigeria. A total of
520 urine samples were collected from the pupils and were analyzed for ova of Schistosoma
haematobium and also the urines were also cultured for Escherichia coli. The ova of
Schsitosomiasis was determined using the standard centrifugation method. E,coli was isolated
using Cystiene Lactose Electrolyte Deficient (CLED) Agar and was subcultured on Eosin
Methylene Blue(EMB) Agar. IMVIC biochemical test were carried out on the isolates. Further
biochemical test was carried out to confirm the isolates were Escherichia coli. Antibiotic
susceptibility test was carried out on the E,coli isolate using disk diffusion method. The
prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium was 20.4%, Escherichia coli was 4.6% and the co-
infection was 4.6%. The prevalence rates of Schistosoma haematobium infection in LEA Z, LEA
J, LEA G, and LEA P were 14.6%, 26.9%, 18.5% and 21.5% respectively. The prevalence of E.
coli and co-infection in LEA Z, LEA J, LEA G and LEA P were 2.3%. 5.4%, 4.6% and 6.2%.
The highest prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium was found among the age group of 10-
14years There was a significant association (χ2=8.936, df=3, P=0.030*) between age and
Schistosoma haematobium infection. The prevalence of E.coli was found to be higher among the
age group of 15-19 years and the prevalence was higher in the female (4.7%) than male (4.6%).
There was no significant association between E. coli infection and age. The prevalence of
Schistosoma haematobium in male pupils (23.5%) was found to be higher than the female pupils
(15.0%). There was significant association between Schistosoma haematobium and Gender. The
prevalence of Escherichia coli in females pupils was higher when compared to the male pupils.
There was no significant association between E. coli and gender. Higher prevalence of
Schistosoma haematobium was found among pupils who use streams /lakes as source of drinking
water. There was significant association between S. haematobium and source of drinking
water.The antibacterial susceptibility profile of the isolates was determined using 10 different
antibiotics. All the isolates were susceptible to Gentamicin. Some of the isolates were resistant to
Ciprofloxacillin, Amoxycillin, Chloramphenicol, Tetracycline, Sulphamethoxazole
Trimethropin, Nalixidic acid, Ampicillin, Doxycycline and Nitrofurantoin.
1.1 Background of the Study
Urinary tract infections (UTI) represent one of the most common infections encountered in
medical practice today and occurring from the neonate to the geriatric age group (Kunin, 1994).
Despite the widespread availability of antibiotics, UTI remains the most common bacterial
infection in the human population (Tambekar et al., 2006). About one hundred and fifty million
individuals had been reported to be affected by UTIs annually worldwide (Gupta et al., 2001).
Urinary tract infections occur as a result of the microbial colonization of urine and the invasion
of any structure of the urinary tract by microbial organisms such as bacteria, viruses, and/or
parasites (Stamm, 1999; Stamm, 2008).
Urinary tract infections associated with Schistosoma haematobium affects the entire
genitourinary tract (Ifeanyi et al., 2009). Bacterial infections are often recurrent and important in
the prepatent period of urinary schistosomiasis which may be instrumental in precipitating renal
failure (Ifeanyi et al, 2009). In urinary schistosomiasis, secondary bacterial infections are
common and in men can involve the seminal vesicles, spermatic cord, and to a lesser extent, the
prostate. In women, infection can involve the cervix and fallopian tubes and can cause infertility
(Ifeanyi et al., 2009).
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the commonest microbial infectious disease in community
practice with a high rate of morbidity and financial cost. Urinary tract infections are described as
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