HEALTH EFFECT OF STREET HAWKING AMONG CHILDREN A CASE STUDY OF TUDUN WADA KADUNA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA KADUNA

HEALTH EFFECT OF STREET HAWKING AMONG CHILDREN A CASE STUDY OF TUDUN WADA KADUNA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA KADUNA

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CHAPTER ONE

1.1       Background of the Study                         

Water sustains life; therefore its constant availability is of paramount importance to ensure the continuity of life on earth. The dependence of man and animal on water makes it a commodity whose viability and availability should be of concern to all.

Through a constant series of research and development it was suggested that ground water is among the purest forms of natural occurring water (Hellstrain, 2008). Therefore the utilization of ground water has become very pertinent, especially in areas where modern water purification schemes do not exist.

Underground water is tapped via hand dug well, canals and boreholes. Borehole involves the use of drilling rings to reach the water bearing strata, located several meters below the ground canals are cut along designated channels proven to have a lot of near surface underground water occurrences, canals are user mostly for agricultural purposes in Nigeria. Hand dug wells data back to the ancient days and has persisted to data as the most reliable and economic source of water for rural and metropolitan dwells (Stiles, 1998).

Community health, schemes in Nigeria has been enhanced by the provision of different hand pump delivered underground waters. Some communities have overhead tanks and the underground water are delivered to such tanks by submersible pumps. In all the cases both the bacteriological and chemical analysis are done and compared with world health organization standard, to declared the borehole, canal or dug well water safe for human consumption.

Boreholes are resistance to many form of natural and manmade disaster. Although the components above ground may be damage, the narrow opening at the top of the water source or damage to the pump components bellow the ground. The main exception to this is damage caused by earth quakes, which can be greats below ground than what can be seen on the surface.

Engineers and environmental consultants use the term borehole to collectively describe all the various types of holes drilled as part of a geotechnical of environmental site assessment (Ca So called phase 11 ESA) (Michael, 1968)

A borehole is a hydraulic structure which when properly designed and constructed, permits the economic withdrawal of water from an acquired. It is sometimes referred to as the accessing of groundwater for use in human day-to-day activities such as domestic use and small irrigation or agricultural lawn. A borehole is also defined as a narrow well drilled with machine, more costly to build them dug wells, but they and deeper and more reliable water from borehole is safer, since every boreholes is covered and nerds a pump, there is no direct user contact with the water. This includes holed advanced to collect soil samples, water samples or rock cores to advance in site sampling equipment or to install monitoring wells or piezometres.

Sample collected from boreholes are often tested in laboratory to chemical constituents or contaminants.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

The past borehole has been damaged and is not longer supplying water. It has not been in use for the past three years. Most parts needs replacement and the chain transmission is corroded due to action rainfall on it. The department often experience water shortage due to emetic supply from the public water works. Therefore there is need to construct a new borehole to provide an alternative source of water to the department

1.3     Aims and Objective

The aim of the work is to construct a new modern operated borehole in agricultural and bio-environmental engineering department 

1.4      Objectives

i.      Reconnaissance survey

ii.    Geographic investigation

iii.  Construction of borehole using hydraulic Rotary method

1.5     Significance of the Study

The borehole need to be constructed to ser as the major source of water to the department and also to other neighboring departments. It serves as an alternative water supply when there is shortage in pipe born water supply to the department. It would also serve as a water source to the lawn behind the department.

1.6     Scope of the Study

The project work is limited to the construction of a new standard borehole using hydraulic rotary method and its development for future use.





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