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1.1 Background of the study
Comparative Effect Of Simulation And Demonstration Methods Of Instruction On Students’ Academic Performance In Business Studies At Junior Secondary School Level. This study focused on the “Effect of Simulation and Demonstration teaching methods on Junior Secondary School Students’ Performance in Business Studies”. Five research questions were posed and three hypotheses formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study was quasi-experimental design. The population for the study consisted of all Junior Secondary School (JSSII) students offering business studies in the 15 government owned secondary schools selected in Isoko North Local Government Area. Purposive sampling technique was used to select two (2) intact classes amounting to 93 students, comprising 51 male and 42 females. The school were grouped into simulation and demonstration groups. A test was administered to the two groups which served as a pre-test. A demonstration teaching method was used for the demonstration group while students in the simulation group were exposed to the simulation method of teaching. A teacher made test was later administered to the groups which served as a post test. Data collected were organized in tables and analyzed using mean and standard deviation. ANCOVA was used to test the hypotheses. The finding of the study shows that simulation method has significant effect on students performance in learning business studies. There was significant difference in students’ mean achievement score after using simulation in teaching business studies. The simulation group perform significantly better than the demonstration group. Female students perform better than their male counterparts showing a significant difference in their performance in business studies. The mean performance scores of students before and after simulation differed significantly showing that students performed better after they have been exposed to simulation method. One of the recommendations made based on the findings is that, business teacher should be encouraged to adopt the use of simulation as an alternative to demonstration teaching method in teaching business studies. Implications were drawn and areas of further research were highlighted.
Social Studies is one of the compulsory subjects studied in junior secondary schools in Nigeria. The subject according to Udoh (1993) and Mansaray(1996) is a discipline that can be used in solving problems of relationship and interaction in man’s dynamic environment. Social Studies must be centered on innovative methods that aim at seeking the truth which include problem detecting, problem solving, learning by experimenting and discovery learning. Of great concern to the investigators is that most Social Studies teachers still rely mostly on the lecture method for imparting information. In the lecture method, the teacher according to Ajimoko (1975), Fabusuyi (1981), Ogunsanya (1984), Iyewarun (1989), Akinlaye, Mansaray and Ajiboye (1996), Akinlaye, Bolarin, Olaniyonu&Ayodele (1997) and Ogundare (2000) simply becomes the expositor and drill master while the learner remains the listener and a storehouse of facts that can be retrieved when a student hears his name called by the teacher. The problem of students’ under–achievement in Social Studies has been a much discussed educational issue since the early 80’s when it became a compulsory subject in Nigeria (Adaralegbe 1980, Dubey and Barth (1980), Dubey&Onyabe (1980), Adedoyin (1981), Akinlaye (1981), Adekeye (1982), Orimoloye (1984), Lemlech (1984, 1990), Mansaray (1987), Iyewarun (1988), Mansaray (1991) and Akinlaye (1997). Such discussions have consistently centred round instructional strategies used in teaching the subject. When similar situations of under-achievement were experienced in Mathematics and the Sciences in Nigeria, new instructional methods were employed such as: mastery learning, peer tutoring, computer-assistedinstruction, simulation games and brainstorming. Findings revealed that simulation games and brainstorming have been of tremendous effect (Wood, Mento and Locke (1987), Adeniran (1994), Paulus, Larey and Ortega (1995), Adelakun (1997), McGlynn, McGurk, Effland and Johll (2004), Valacich, Jung and Looney (2006) and Adewale (2008).

Traditionally, teachers use face-to-face method. But with the development of high technology, such as internet, video and voice technology, virtual teaching method is becoming increasingly popular. As of September 2007, states sponsored “significant supplemental online learning programs, significant full-time programs, or both” (Watson & Ryan, 2007; Roblyer et al, 2009). In comparison with face-to-face teaching, virtual teaching method can increase students’ cognitive-affective engagement (PytlikZillig et al, 2011), create an environment that cultivates better achievement and attitudes (Bernard, 2004), give students more time to prepare and put forward their ideas (Sotillo, 2000; Yamat, 2013), and offer flexibility to those distance learners who may not have opportunity to meet or to interact with their learning counterparts, it is against this backdrop that the researcher intends to embark on a comparative effects of simulation and demonstration of methods of instruction on student academic performance in business studies.

The main objective of this study is to assess the effect of simulation and demonstration of methods of instruction on students’ academic performance in business studies, but the researcher intend to achieve the following specific objective:
i) To ascertain the effect of simulation method of teaching on student academic performance in business study
ii) To investigate if there is any relationship between simulation method and the face-to-face method
iii) To ascertain the impact of simulation instructional approach on student understanding of business study
iv) To proffer suggested solution to the identified problem

To aid the completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher:
H0:simulation method of instruction has no effect on student academic performance in business studies
H1:simulation method of instruction has effect on student academic performance in business studies
H02:there is no relationship between simulation method and the face-to-face method
H2:there is a relationship between simulation method and the face-to-face method

It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of important to secondary school teachers, as the study will help them review the method of instructions to adopt in teaching of business studies in secondary schools, the study will also be of importance to the management of secondary schools as the findings will help them determine weather to adopt the simulation instructional methods, the study will also be of importance to researchers who intends to embark on a similar study as the study will serve as a reference point to other research, finally the study will also be of great importance to student, teachers, lecturers and the general public as the study will also contribute the pool of knowledge.

The scope of the study covers a comparative effects of simulation and demonstration of methods of instruction on students’ academic performance in business studies, in the cause of the studies there were some factors which limited the scope of the study;
a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) FINANCE: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.

Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system over time. The act of simulating something first requires that a model be developed; this model represents the key characteristics, behaviors and functions of the selected physical or abstract system or process
Demonstration method
Demonstration (teaching) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to: navigation, search.Demonstration involves showing by reason or proof, explaining or making clear by use of examples or experiments. Put more simply, demonstration means 'to clearly show
Students’ academic performance 
Academic achievement or (academic) performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals. Cumulative GPA and completion of educational degrees such as High School and bachelor's degrees representacademic achievement.

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows 
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

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