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ABSTRACT The research work sought to find the extent of integration of practical into teaching chemistry in Senior Secondary Schools in Enugu South L.G.A Enugu State. Research questions were raised and questionnaire was used to elicit responses from the students. The information so obtained were subject to analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results of the statistical analysis showed that these students are sufficiently aware of the impact of the integration of practical in teaching chemistry, Such encouraging results suggest that, enhancing practical classes would improve the technological level of sciences in Nigerian educational system and individual student interest in sciences. Topics for further research and recommendations were also made.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page i
Abstract vii Table of Content viii
List of Tables xi
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Statement of Problems 3
1.3 Purpose of Study 4
1.4 Significance of the Study 5
1.5 Research of Question 5
1.6 Scope of the Study 6
LITERATURE REVIEW 9
2.1 Meaning of Science 9
2.2 Brief History of Science 10
2.3 Nature of Science 11
2.4 Development of Science 13
2.4.1 Theory Stage 14
2.4.2 Nature of Chemistry as Science 15
2.5 Brief History of Chemistry 16
2.6 Needs for Practical Integration into Teaching and Learning of Chemistry in Secondary Schools 18
2.7 Importance of Practical Integrations into Teaching and
Learning of Chemistry 20
2.8 Factors Affecting the Achievement of Secondary School Chemistry Students in Relation to Studying Chemistry in the Laboratory 23
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURE 28
3.1 Introduction 28
3.2 Design of Study 28
3.3 Area of Study 28
3.4 Population 28
3.5 Sampling and Sampling Techniques 30
3.6 Methods for Data Collection 32
3.6.1 Primary Data Collection 32
3.6.2 Secondary Data Collection 32
3.7 Constructions Reliability and Validity of the Methods
for Data Collection 33
3.8 Method of Data Analysis 33
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 34
DISCUSSIONS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION 42
5.1 Discussion of Result 42
5.2 Implication of the Study 43
5.3 Limitations of the Study 44
5.4 Suggestion for Further Research 45
5.5 Recommendations 46 5.5 Summary and Conclusion 46
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.1 Presentation of Data Table of Senior Secondary
School in Enugu South Local Government Area 6
Table 1.2 Presentation of Data Table of Senior Secondary Schools Enrolment in Enugu Local Government
Area 2009 7
Table 1.3 Presentation of Data Table fro Science Students of Senior Secondary School in Enugu South Local Government Area, 2009 8
Table 3.1 Presentation of Data Table of Senior Secondary Schools Enrolment in Enugu Local Government
Area 2009 29
Table 3.2 Presentation of Data Table for Science Students of Senior Secondary Schools in Enugu South
Local Government Area 2009 30
Table 4.1 Result Presentation of Values Statistical Analysis of
Data Question One 34
Table 4.2 Result Presentation of Values Statistical Analysis of
Data Question Two 36
Table 4.3 Result Presentation of Values Statistical Analysis of
Data Question Three 37
Table 4.4 Result Presentation of Values Statistical Analysis of
Data Question Four 39
In Nigeria emphasis in developing our science and technological skills is very high because they are vital for economic and industrial development. The essence of this research work is to ascertain the level of practical integration in our senior secondary schools, to create awareness of it is importance into teaching and learning and recommendation of how to improve in our technological level as a nation.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In Nigeria science and technology is indispensable to use because it is the bedrock of our economic and industrial development. Basic as it is science and technology is in our daily human activities. It is worthy to note that the major advances made in Medicine, Pharmacy, Industrial Chemistry, Engineering are based on researches being conducted in many areas of science and technology such as Chemistry.
Chemistry is taught as a science subject in almost all Nigeria senior secondary schools even in the higher and tertiary institutions and these schools thus serve as the starting point for the teaching of introductory chemistry with the aim of training the students in the process of scientific investigations. Chemistry is one of the core-science subjects in our school because it is one of the entry requirements in some fields of studies such as Nursing, Medicine, Pharmacy, Engineering, Science Education, Biochemistry and so on.
The extent of integration of practicals in senior secondary schools has a lot to tell on any chemistry students especially in his or her final examination since no work is done on any science subject especially chemistry if there is no integration of practicals which helps in better assimilation of scientific theories for effective industrial output in the society.
The most influential science process established (Tamir, 1991) stated that the prerequisite knowledge of concept and principles can be obtained only if the students have certain underlying capability of the science processes, which are needed to practise and understand science subject especially in Chemistry. These processes include, making operational definitions, formulations, observing, classifying, measuring, formulating hypothesis, interpreting data collected from the observations, and drawing conclusions.
However, contents and concepts will undoubtedly change but the mental skill of the approach that is process skills is relevant to the solution of everyday problem. If a student can think scientifically, he can observe, make simple hypothesis, test them by experiment and make valid inferences and interpreted data, then the level of science and technology in our country will increase to its apex.
Finally, science which Chemistry is a branch is the foundation for scientific enquiry. They are the generalizable intellectual skills needed to learn concepts and broad theories and principles used in making valid inductive inferences. Unfortunately, in Nigeria today, it appears that students are deprived of acquiring the appropriate process skills they need by the society, government, the school, teachers or even themselves. It has been observed that students in this present era are not doing marvellously well especially in their science hence this poor performance in their practical examinations in senior school certificate examination affects the overall result.
For this reason the present research is focused to ascertain the extent of integration of practicals into teaching chemistry in senior secondary schools in Enugu South Local Government of Enugu State.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
In recent years, manpower and millions of naira have been devoted in efforts to improve science teaching in the schools because of the decrease in standard of education in Nigeria has fallen. The teaching of science subjects in Nigeria is now faced with lots of problems and they include among others:
1. Scarcity of qualified science teachers in our schools.
2. The quality and quantity of laboratory technologists employed in our schools.
3. Inadequate laboratory facilities in our schools.
4. Absence of laboratories in some schools.
In this present era there has been shortage of teachers with good knowledge of ways of imparting scientific knowledge and results has shown that laboratory method of teaching science subjects helps to increase our student scientific skills and knowledge thereby solving our country’s industrial and economic problems.
Based on the above, the obvious adverse problems as stated above, states the importance of this study, which tends to look into the extent or level of integration of practicals into teaching chemistry in senior secondary schools in Enugu South local Government Area of Enugu State.
1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY
The purpose of this research work is to access the extent of integration of practicals into teaching chemistry in Senior Secondary Schools in Enugu South local government of Enugu State. More specifically, the study is aimed at: -
(a) To ascertain the level of practical chemistry in senior secondary schools.
(b) To determine the frequency of practical lessons into the teaching of chemistry.
(c) To determine the problem inhibiting the integration of practicals into teaching chemistry in senior secondary schools.
(d) To suggest solutions to problems encountered by chemistry and science students with regards to practicals.
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