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                                         CHAPTER ONE

1.1 INTRODUCTION

1.2 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

A password is a word or string of characters used for user authentication to prove identity of access approval to gain access to a resource, which is to be kept secret from those not allowed access. (Rodriguez, 2015)

The use of passwords is known to be ancient.  Security would challenge those wishing to enter an area or approaching it to supply a password or watchword, and would only allow individuals or group to pass if they knew the password. In modern times, user names and passwords are commonly used by people during a log in process that controls access to protected computer operating systems, mobile phones, cable TV decoders, automated teller machines (ATMs). A typical computer user has passwords for many purposes: logging into accounts, retrieving e-mail, accessing applications, databases, networks, web sites, and even reading the morning newspaper online. Despite the name, there is no need for passwords to be actual words; indeed passwords which are not actual words may be harder to guess, a desirable property. Some passwords are formed from multiple words and may more accurately be called a passphrase. The terms passcode and passkey are sometimes used when the secret information is purely numeric, such as the personal identification number (PIN) commonly used for ATM access. Passwords are generally short enough to be easily memorized and typed. (Christopher, 2015)

Most organizations specify a password policy that sets requirements for the composition and usage of passwords, typically dictating minimum length, required categories (e.g. upper and lower case, numbers, and special characters), prohibited elements (e.g. own name, date of birth, address, telephone number). Some governments have national authentication frameworks that define requirements for user authentication to government services, including requirements for passwords (Alfayyadh et al, 2011).

The proposed frame work for password creation and protection, is an online application with a user friendly interface that will provide a well-protected and secure location for a user to easily store and retrieve passwords conveniently. The operation performed by a password manager is to assist in generating, storing and retrieving complex passwords from an encrypted database (Prince, 2017).

This frame work proposed(password creation and protection) will provide user the ability to secure various passwords, segmenting those passwords into different catalog and search through based on the context for which it is needed  (business, sports, account details). Hence this will help users to store and retrieve passwords in an easy and more convenient manner, reducing the rate at which individuals repeat the same password (weak passwords) for different web applications and platforms

1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

With the ever-increasing use of information technology, there are also an ever-increasing number of user accounts and passwords that needs to be remember and manage. The choice of passwords used for different information systems presents a dilemma. On one hand, an intruder could gain access to all the systems if the same password used for accessing these systems is compromised. On the other hand, when different passwords are used for different systems, users may have the tendency to choose easy-to-remember or weak passwords, or even write them down, which would again jeopardize the security of the systems concerned. There is also a higher chance of users forgetting their passwords, increasing the associated user support and operation overheads for password resets.

All these attacks, if successful, can help unauthorized users harvest the passwords of legitimate users. Systems using passwords as the only authentication method will be unable to differentiate whether the holder of the password is a valid user or not.

This is a major problem in various societies today because weak passwords makes existing accounts very vulnerable for attacks and has a high risk of leaking information and causing theft.

Generally the research focuses on solving the problem of poor choices of passwords and creating a more efficient way of securing applications and other important factors of which the use of passwords are necessary

1.4 AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The purpose of this study is to develop a web-based frame work on password creation and protection. This will be achieved by the following objectives:

1.      To design a web based repository for password creation and protection

2.      To implement the design in (i) using php and MySQL

3.      To evaluate the proposed system  in (i)

1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION

This study only deals on enhancing and protection of passwords for every user

1.6       DEFINITION OF TERMS

Repository: A repository is an archive, store house or container that allows storage, cataloging accessing of passwords and viewing its content

Identifier: an identifier is simply a unique identity attached to one object, it aids referencing such object directly when its identifier is requested. An identifier can be a serial number, identity number or an index number.

Database:  a database is a repository that allows storage, retrieval and manipulation of data. A database can be used efficiently with the aid of a database management system (DBMS).

A set of tools that allows storage access, retrieval and maintenance of data stored in a database, example of DBMS includes XAMPP, WAMP, LAMP and AppServ to mention a few. A database understands only the structured query languages (SQL) which is used to communicate with it, popular database used by well well-known information technology (IT) firms include MySQL, Oracle and Django DB.

Keyword: A phrase or just one word that is used to search for a certain result or set of results.

User: A user is a system, application, request or person that can use a computer or software to perform a specific task.

1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The significance of this project is to enable users keep a number of passwords in a secure digital location (password vault). The password vault offers users the ability to use a single master password for accessing number of different web sites or services, therefore making it feasible with the aid of a search module incorporation into the stand alone application to efficiently search and retrieve passwords from its database. This is beneficial to every individual.

1.8 ORGANISATION OF STUDY

Chapter one introduces the study, discusses its aim and objectives including the contribution which the will make to acknowledge.

Chapter two contains literature review. It reviews past work related to this topic and discusses the advantage of residential information system over previous works.


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