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1.1 Background of the Study
According to the modified European Directive 75/442 a solid waste is any substance or object in the categories set out in the Annex (1) which the holder discards or intends or is required to discard (Karak, 2009).
Annex 1: Or specification product
Out of date product
Materials accidentally spilled, lost or haven undergone other miss shape including any materials equipment etc. contaminated as are stuff of the miss shape.
Materials contaminated or soiled as a result of planned actions e.g. residues from cleaning operations, packing materials containers etc.
Substances which no longer perform satisfactorily e.g. contaminated acids, contaminated solvents, exhausted tempering salts etc.
Residues of industrial processes e.g. slags, still gums etc. Residues from pollution abatement processes e.g. agricultural house hold, office, commercial and shop discards etc.
The definition of waste is directly associated with regulations.
Solid waste can be found in any place in a manufacturing plant. Some of them are produced on a regular basis and some may be the consequence of mishap.
1.2 Process Wastes Presentation
The present report
Provision production ratios of solid waste in leather foot wear and other leather products manufacture and analysis why such wastes are produced.
Analysis possible solutions in order to reduce the quantity of waste or to recycle them.
This report does not take into account the packaging waste in quantitative terms. However, we explain in the figure standard manufacturing process dealing with each specific product where the packaging wasters are produced (Binggeli, 2013). These wastes are more related to local practices than to the manufacturing process itself. Moreover, the recycling solutions rely on the local industrial facilities. It is then very difficult to establish ration in this field and to recommend standard recycling solutions (Meshveliani, 2009).
1.4 Wastes from leather manufacturing
The leather manufacturing process generates a variety of solid wastes which are well described in a UNIDO reference document. In the present report, we only selected the wastes having a chemical composition comparable to finished leather (Meshveliani, 2009).
Blue (WB) Splits, trimmings and shaving
Footwear is the sector which “Consumes” the major parts of leather (60%) logically this industry is producing the largest quantity of leather wastes. However, in spite of the specific application of their products these industries have some common points which are described here after (Wincent, 2009).
The process involves similar production steps and technology except for foot wear for which the assembling techniques can be sophisticated. The materials (leather, textiles etc) are similar that is why a sold waste is generated in particular and the factors which influence the quantity of wastes are similar.
Using large quantity of leather with poor quality the cutting rate can be 5 points higher than normal. The type of leather (grains, split, side, belly etc) the size of the leather (lamb, bovine etc).the size of the leather (lamb, bovine, etc). The size of the item to produce and combinational size, shape of components to cut in the same piece of materials can be responsible for large wastage.
The ability of the operator in charge of the cutting; a good clicker can cut 3-5% below the allocated surface.
The solution to reduce the quantity of leather waste solemnly depends on how skillful the clicker is, and by this approach the quantity waste will reduce.
The external solution to recycle the solid wastes are the same.
1.5 Statement of the Problem
The shoe industry produces a lot of waste materials and these have littered the environment in many ways. And also causes a serious pollution to the people during the process of incinerating this waste material by releasing a toxic substance into the atmosphere, which is harmful to human health in general.
Some of these chemicals used in preserving animals hides or skins are usually carcinogenic in nature, which implies that there liable to cause cancer.
The thoughtfulness of all these challenges and short comings of ignoring and abandoning of these waste leather materials and the environmental impact it has on the health of the people was what prompted the need for the researcher to utilize the leather scraps.
By combining them with other materials in order to complement and enhance good quality, durable, affordable and high aesthetic finished leather article which cuts across all social classes. Also this research work is geared and propelled towards campaigning for buying locally made in Nigeria products which is one of the agenda of the present government of the day.
Sourcing leather scraps for production of leather articles is very demanding. Because these scrap materials are not getting from one source alone that is one have to go from one workshop to another where by leather is their major material that they use for production. During the course of this research work the writer discovers that getting these leather scraps are a bit scarce at this point in time. As a matter of curiosity he decided to probe further in order to ascertain the actual reason for this scarcity. Base on the writer’s findings he was made to understand that the cost of leather has hike up due to the present economic recession which affects virtually all the arms of economic activities in the entire Nigeria. Due to this challenges they opt for man-made materials that are more affordable and available while leather is only been used based on customers demand. The footwear and leather goods factories would have being the best option if it was a large scale production in order to source for these scrap materials. But because it is a small scale production the writer did not see the need to capture factories as a major source of getting raw materials for this production. The inspiration behind the writer’s idea to make use of leather scraps and other materials for the production and adornment of leather articles is to produce an affordable, durable and comfortable leather articles irrespective of one’s social economic class or capacity. And on the other hand, it is channeled towards complementing fashion in its entirety.
1.7 Aims and Objectives of the Study
1. To recycle leather scraps into a finished product.
2. To use leather scraps to complement other materials
3. To enhance production and to encourage locally produced leather articles in Nigeria.
4. To produce an affordable, durable product for all social class in the entire nation.
5. To input new dimension of aesthetics into fashion accessories in order to propel the fashion design world to the next level.
6. To breach the gap between locally and foreign product
7. To create a conducive atmosphere where manufactures and consumers will break the monopoly of this misconception of believing that foreign product is more superior to locally home produce products.
1.8 Significance of the Study
The study will contribute immensely to the existing knowledge on enhancing and complementing leather scraps and other materials holistically.
1.9 Scope of the Study
The study is restricted to using leather scraps and other leather and man-made materials for the design and production of leather articles.
1.10 Research Question
1. Using inferior materials in the production of leather article cause a poor quality effect on the finished product?
2. There possibilities of producing better quality leather articles with leather scraps and other materials that can measure up to the market standard?
3. The synergy between leather scraps and other man-made materials can change the mindset of Nigerians about inferiority of locally based produced leather articles?
4. The use of leather scraps and other materials for the production of leather articles can be more fashionable than the already made product out there?
5. Recycling of waste leather materials into finished product can help to keep the environment clean and reduced the rate of pollution?
6. Complementing other materials with leather scraps will bring about a new dimension, innovation, and set a new past for fashion accessories?
7. Product manufactured from leather scraps are more durable, reliable and highly qualitative compared to other man-made materials?
8. Articles produced from leather scraps are cheaper, stronger, available, and easy accessible than other materials?
9. Leather scraps have the potentials to create wealth and streams of opportunities, for fashion accessory designers, within the local and international level?
10. Fashion accessory materials are more effective, efficient, appreciable when complemented with leather scraps than just the same kind of materials all through?
1.11 Definition of Terms
Design can be viewed as a plan or detail drawing of a shoe, bag, garment, belt, wallet, key chain from which it can be built or made from or the art or process of deciding how something will look like or works etc. by drawing plans and making models.
Pattern cutting is the process whereby the designers’ ideas are interpreted by the pattern cutter, who then produces sectional pattern for production. The pattern cutter is responsible for all patterns required for leather articles production, these includes pattern for outsides, lining, insole, sole, heel, stiffeners backers and toe puffs, frame, flaps, handles, gusset.
The standard forme is the blue print or master copy on which the sectional patterns are made from.
Sectional patterns are those parts that are obtained from the standard forme.
Leather is a materials made from animal hide or skin that has been made permanently more resistant to decomposition particularly when wet through chemical treatment called tanning.
Textile: a cloth produced from a fabric.
Polymer: a long larger molecule consisting of a chain or network of many repeating units formed by chemically bonding together many identical or similar small molecules called monomers.
An insole is the pillar or foundation of a shoe
A scrap is a small left over pieces or discarded materials.
The term clicking is the traditional word for cutting, clicking room is the name given to the part of the factory where the different parts of the upper of a shoe, frame of a bag, gusset, handles are cut from leather or other materials.
Closing is the title given to the operation of fitting together and sewing off of the cut components to produce an upper ready for lasting.
Preparation is the name that suggests a series of operations which prepare the upper section for stitching.
Before commencing any of the operation in closing, it is necessary to ensure that the upper components are correct by checking them against the ticket.
A last is a three dimensional object base on the shape and movement of the foot on which footwear is made. Last can be made from wood, plastic, metal and normally of the link hinge types to allow them to be removed when the shoe has been made.
Drafting means taking the initial stretch out of the upper, and giving it to approximate shape of the last in preparation for actual lasting itself.
The insole is tacked flush to the leather edge with (5) tacks in the fore part, one at the waist and one at the seat, these tacks are necessary to hold the insole tight to the last as it is not pre-molded.
Lasting is the term given to the process of pulling the upper materials over the last and securing it to the bottom of the insole either by tacks or with adhesive, providing that the operation are carried out in the correct way.
This is the process where the sole is been prepared.
This is a process whereby the surface of the inward of the feather edge is been roughed round the sole for proper adhesion.
This part is coated with cement, usually (PU) polyurethane and allowed to dry.
The frame is the structural elements of a building or other constructed object. This refers to the main body of a bag.
This is a two strap of a material that is holding the Zipper in place on a bag.
An element of decoration
The piece of leather, etc, that forms the top part of a shoe above the sole.
A cord or ribbon passed through eyelets in a shoe or garment, pulled tight and fixed to fasten the shoe or garment firmly.
The inner part of a shoe with a layer of material on the surface that comes in contact with the foot.
A large medal, usually used as decorative.
The top part of a boot or shoe, above the sole and welt and in front of the ankle seam, that covers the in step and toes; the form part of an upper; the analogues part of a stocking.
A long, narrow, pliable strip of leather, cloths or the like
This is a part of a shoe situated at the back of a shoe that is wider than a strap
A dogtail is that slash cut on the tip of a shoe on the top line which serves as a decoration
The base or bottom part of shoe
A straight, narrow part of an object; shaft stem inserted in between the layers of the insole or a shoe.
A strip or material from either leather thermoplastic, fabric, micro cellular rubber or fiber board inserted in between the upper material and the lining in order to reinforce the fore part of the shoe and for shape retention
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