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One of the major problems confronting management today is that of motivation to perform assigned task to meet or surpasses predetermined standard. Motivation is that energizing forces that induces or compels and maintains behaviors. Human behaviour is motivated it is goals directed. It is not easy to motivate an individuals, for the success of any motivational effort depends on the extent of which the motivator meets the needs of the individual employees for whom it is intended. Motivation is an internal psychological process whose presence or absence is intended from observed performance. Motivated workers tend to exercise quarter initiative and direction, courage, energy, and the persistence to optimize goals; a motivated person takes action and does what ever is needful to achieve his or her goals. Motivation becomes strong, when you have a vision, a clear mental image of where you want to achieve, and also a strong desire to manifest it. In such a situation, motivation awakens inner strength and power, and pushes you forward making your vision a reality; as such rethinking public service motivation increase employees performance and retention.


With reference to Nigeria motivation was introduced to increased performance and productivity. The development of any organization very much depends on effective employees motivation, motivation was introduced because of the following reasons which include among others; rewards are a great motivator. In fact, much of what we do in life is motivated by a reward of some kind, whether intrinsic or extrinsic employees motivation in an organization increase confidence and job satisfaction, if you are out of shape or overweight, it can take a lot of courage to start an exercise routine; an organization will not be able to achieve their goal effectively but motivation brings about goal effectively but motivation brings about goal achievement; it exercise hasn’t been enjoyable for you, it’s time to find a way to make it fun. Everyone likes doing things to enjoy. You might have running but enjoy swimming or riding a bike: motivation also changes the behaviour of an employee towards increased performance and retention; motivation enhance group dynamism and craft a good relationship between job and employee.

In spite of all these reasons mentioned, there are a number of problems affecting public service motivation among these problems include, in Nigeria today lack of proper managerial knowledge, economic depression and high rate of unemployment have made most workers subject to


themselves, to deplorable working condition, which of course one the catalyst of low performance, managers in most of the organization are aware of the situation in the labour market, and as such went to capitalize on that to subject workers to deplorable working condition. It is when one is satisfied both physically and psychologically that such a person can perform his best. There fore intimidating workers or threatening to back can only worsen the situation, in Nigeria most at times, the pay given to a worker is not commensurable to the type of work done. Low performance which comes as a result of job dissatisfaction is always basis of or conflict between organization and workers. Another problem facing public service motivation is poor leadership style, public service motivation is also affected by negative. Re-enforcement an job enlargement.

In order to address the problems mentioned above the public service motivation should adhere to its vital activities of haven effective and skills, create mass employment opportunities which assist in ensuring high performance of employees and retention, management or organization should create good relationship between employees and their job and thereby eradicating intimidation of workers; payment of an employee should be based on the job done by that employees to avoid the level of labour turn over and ensure peace and harmony between organization and the workers;


democratic leadership style should be adopted by the public service so that the motivation of their employees would be maximize.

Therefore, from the above its clearly observed that the discussion is on rethinking public service motivation for increased employee performance and retention.


Motivation deals with the factors that induce people performance in the organization poor managerial aptitude among different public sector today create a serious impediment in motivating employees this challenge does not affect only the individual but also the organization suffers because of its affects productivity and induce low performance of employees as such it serve as genesis of may organizational problems. Poor managerial knowledge lead to employment of unsuitable employees in flying a negative behaviour on planning, controlling and directing which serves as a way through which organizations can prosper. Motivating employees in public service usually affected by the behaviour exhibited by the superior which lead to intimidation between superiors and their subordinates and inturn lead to loose of confidence on the part of subordinates in the public service. The level of intimidation that exist between public servant create a serious challenge to the employee performance and retention and inturn affect the


productivity and organizational prosperity. Employee require non monitary incentives because it assist in the creating new ideas and initiative aimed at organizational development.

In public organization conflicts remain unbeatable but an ability of an organization to manage the conflicts prove that organization to be effective and efficient. Looking at the structure and the actual performance of the public servants in the public service today employee has not been adequately motivated due to the gap that exist between where they are and where they are heading to. It is the present of conflicts that affects the employee performance and retention, generally speaking ineffective performance of most of the employees today is due to the conflict bedeviling public sector in Nigeria. Leadership is an important instrument in achieving organizational efficiency it is the combination of organizational structure with goal and leadership of the organization that determine the actual performance of that organization. In public service today the style of leadership that is in existence is not effective and democratic in nature that is why the level of productivity and performance is very low and insignificance. The poor leadership style affect employees motivation because of the fact that it cannot assist in determining the most promising and satisfactory motivational package in the public service compare to what is obtainable in


the private sector. The level of performance between the public and private sector is quite obvious because the leadership style posses in most of the public sector are not effective and efficient in determining the organizational goals and ensure strict employee performance and retention in the public service, this gave an insight for the emergence of the new public sector management in order to address the ineffective, inefficient and lack of accountability associated with the public sector in Nigeria.


The study is meant to answer the following research questions

1.     To what extent could poor managerial knowledge on public service motivation affect increased in employee performance and retention?

2.     How detrimental is intimidation between employees and organization in public service motivation affect employee performance and retention?

3.     What is the effect of conflict on motivation and increased employee performance and retention?

4.     What is the relationship between poor leadership style on public service motivation to increased employee performance and retention?

5.     What is the effect of negative reinforcement on public service motivation to increased employee performance and retention?


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