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Unlike other socio-economic concept, poverty does not have a generally accepted definition because of its multidimensional nature. Generally, among the economists, poverty isolation, powerlessness, humiliation and social inferiority seen (1987) poverty could be defined as lack of certain capabilities such as not being able to facilitate in society with respect.
According to Repnic (1994) “He stated that poverty can be expressed as the inability to satisfy the basic needs of life while is as a result of lack of income and means to dynamic condition”.
More so any living condition or situation forced by an individual with cultural, environmental deprivation and economic could also be referred to as poverty. In the country in general, poverty has become the song of the day in the issue of development, export and international agencies. It’s state of existence and aggravation despite programmed designed to reduce it, poses challenges to human kind. Poverty reduction programme seems to be producing result elsewhere, the same cannot be said sub-Saharan Africa where the evidence of poverty is rising. At present Nigeria live below poverty line.
The rate of unemployment increase here and there and poverty is compounded over two decades of political inability, micro economic policy in consistencies, low capacity utilisation in industries and massive turnover of school leavers and graduates from educational institutions.
May 29th, 1999 when President Olusegun Obasanjo took over the affairs of this nation, Administration took upon itself the major task of redressing the thorny problem of poverty and development generation.
To its commitment downward the achievement of this task, the government set aside the sum of (N10) billion naira for the creation of 200,000 jobs in the year 2000.
Actually, poverty does not hand in the air, it is a reality at the grass root. But the present poverty alleviation strategy is a strange bad fellow with the clamour for power devolution and employment at the lowest level of government.
The Federal Government is indeed the farthest from the people; most Nigerians confront other level of government more than they do the Federal level.
A meaningful approach to poverty alleviation needs not only to be decentralised but also democratized as well. Poverty and unemployment were not a national concern in Nigeria as it today within two decades of independence in (1960).
Modern technology such as agricultural industries and the then building public service sector were able to effectively absorb most of the labour forces. The agricultural sector for instance generated about 70% of the nation’s employment opportunities and accounted for about 80% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
With the advent of petroleum in mid Jos the economy was further strengthened as it grew at an average over 11%. Government, during the period was able to achieve much through oil revenue.
The ensuring political instability and inconsistence in the socio-economic polities f the successive government emerged as a major factors that led to the manifestation of high level of poverty in Nigeria. In brief, poverty and unemployment trend in Nigeria indicate that without concerted effort to tackle these problems, this situation could get worse. Hence this study is carried out with a view to finding solutions to this perennial problem of poverty in Nigeria.
1.1 Statement of the Problems
In spite of huge resource published into poverty alleviation programmes in Nigeria, most Nigerian remain poor based on the data released by the vanguard newspaper Monday November 8, 2002, 2004, poverty evidence in Nigeria were about 91% in 2002, it has increased to 93% in 2003 and also increased to 96% in 2004, of which one may be expecting to rise more than this in the year ahead.
From the going, increase in poverty, it has become imperative to carry out a concise evaluation of the necessary agencies in Nigeria to ascertain the problems and proffer solution.
1.2 Objectives of the Study
The objective of the study is to know how poverty alleviation emerged. Moreover, the study will majorly well on the following objectives:
i. To examine how poverty alleviation programme has minimised the rural-urban drift through the improvement of rural communities by effective of small and semi-scale firm.
ii. To identify whether or not the fund available to poverty alleviation programmes is committed t the direct benefit of the masses. If really the problem of the masses has been solved through this programme.
iii. To evaluate the success of failure of poverty alleviation programme i.e. to know where it works and where it also failed within the country.
iv. Lastly, is to identify the problems and prospects of poverty alleviation programme in Nigeria, Kogi State as a case study.
1.3 Significance of the Study
In the course of this project, an attempt is made to examine how poverty has brought Nigeria and Kogi State in particularly to an undeveloped society and how to establish the measures that could be put in place for the eradication of this poverty in the society and Kogi State in particular.
However the outcome of this work shall aid the country and Kogi State in particular in improving upon their existing programmes on poverty in the country. In addition, the research work may also assist in narrowing down the level of poverty and thereby introducing new principles to be used by the agent of poverty alleviation in controlling the high rate of poverty in the society.
Equally, it will enhance the discovery of opportunities and help to reduce threats facing development in Nigeria which lead to poverty.
Finally, this project work can assist students in this field who may want to carry out any of the related studies.
1.4 Scope of the Study
The scope of the study shall focus on the poverty alleviation programme in Nigeria; a case study of Kogi State since the year 2000 to the period of this research, the year 2011. It is therefore, believed that recommendations made based on the findings of this study will provide the platform for poverty alleviation programmes in Kogi State of Nigeria.
1.5 Limitations of the Study
In carrying out this study, the writer come across some hurdles and a good number of constraining factors, for the purpose of simplicity, these factors are discussed below:
i. Time Limited: The present unstable educational environment which led to crash programme in most academic programmes affected adversely the quality of this work as the time allowed was extremely too short comparative, the time allowed is too short in respect of the expected extent to be covered in.
ii. Lack of Finance: There was inadequate finance to cope to the government with reward of bursary allowance normally given to student carryintout a research work and partly due to general economic, crucial parading.
iii. Insufficient Data: Inadequate necessary information to carry out this study work effectively and exhaustively was not obtained. Although, the writer has however managed and carefully evaluate the role of development of Kogi State and prospect.
1.6 Study Questions
The study questions involve the following:
Question One: To what extent does the poverty alleviation progamme in Nigeria have a direct bearing with poverty reduction of the masses?
Question Two: Do people in the rural areas feel the positive impact of poverty alleviation programme in Nigeria?
Question Three: Does poverty alleviation programme in Nigeria actually achieve the purpose for which it is set up?
Question Four: Is there provision of financial assistance to the masses alleviation poverty in Nigeria?
Question Five: Can government enhance the credibility of poverty alleviation programme by monitoring all their activities and programmes?
Question Six: Who are the beneficiaries of poverty alleviation programme in Nigeria?
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