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TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page - - - - - - - - - - i
Dedication - - - - - - - - - - ii
Certification - - - - - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - - iv
Table of Content - - - - - - - - - v
List of Tables - - - - - - - - - ix
Abstract - - - - - - - - - - x
1.0 Background to the Study - - - - - - - 1
1.1 Statement of the Problem - - - - - - - 3
1.3 Purpose of the Study - - - - - - - - 4
1.4 Research Questions - - - - - - - - 5
1.5 Research Hypotheses - - - - - - - - 5
1.6 Significance of the Study - - - - - - - 6
1.7 Limitations of the Study - - - - - - - 6
1.8 Scope of the Study - - - - - - - - 7
1.9 Definition of Terms - - - - - - - - 7
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Political Violence in Nigeria - - - - - - 9
2.2 Political Violence in Nigeria - - - - - - 10
2.3 Brief History of Political Violence in Nigeria - - - 11
2.4 Causes of Political Violence in Nigeria - - - - - 12
2.5 Curbing Political Violence in Nigeria - - - - - 12
2.6 Theoretical Framework - - - - - - - 13
2.7 The scope of the concept of socio-economic development and its
Reference - - - - - - - - - 15
2.8 The character of socio-economic development - - - - 17
2.9 Needs and values - - - - - - - - 19
2.8 The character of socio-economic development - - - - 21
2.9 Needs and values - - - - - - - - 22
2.12 Theoretical Framework - - - - - - - 24
2.13 Remote Causes of Underdevelopment of African States - - 26
2.14 Roles of Nepad to Nigerian Socio-Economic Development - - 28
2.15 Related Post Accountability in Public Sector - A Pre-Condition For
Economic Growth and Development in Nigeria - - - 29
2.15.1 Nigeria Economic Situation - - - - - - 29
2.16 Summary of Findings - - - - - - - 30
2.17 Discussion on Findings - - - - - - - 31
3.1 Research Design - - - - - - - - 33
3.2 Population of Study - - - - - - - - 33
3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique - - - - - - 34
3.4 Instrumentation - - - - - - - - 34
3.5 Reliability of the Instrument - - - - - - 35
3.6 Method of Data Collection - - - - - - - 35
3.7 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - - - 36
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Data Analysis - - - - - - - - - 38
4.2 Testing of Hypotheses - - - - - - - 41
4.3 Discussion of Findings - - - - - - - - 49
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary - - - - - - - - - 51
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - - 53
5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - - - 55
References - - - - - - - - - - 60
Appendix - - - - - - - - - - 61
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Characteristics of Respondents - - - - - 38
Table 2: Survey Questions - - - - - - - 39
Table 3: Linkage of Hypotheses and Survey Questions - - - 41
The examines the political violence and Social-economic Development in Nigeria. To actualize the purpose, of the study was divided into five chapters while. Chapter one was introduction background of the study. Chapter two received related literature on the subject matter chapter three. Covered, research design and methodology. Chapter four focused on data presentation, analysis and interpretation, finally chapter five narrated the summary of work done and made recommendation. This study employed the probability simple random sampling technique. Te sample size for this study is 210 respondents and level of significance is 0.5. The federal government has a sole duty of providing securities for its citizens during elections to prevent political violence and should address the issues of corruption by setting up institutions or agencies that will deal with corrupt leading or official as this will enhance successful achievement of NEFADS programmes. The study concluding that if the standard of living of Nigeria are increased, the menace of electorate violence will decreased.
1.0 Background to the Study
The history of Nigeria has been characterized by a variety of political violence and social economic development in Nigeria, this could be attribute to the coercive imposition and tradition brought together by colonial era (Udokang, 2006). However, apart from these scholars have identified leadership problem, ethnic crisis as well as living standard of the people as the cause of political violence and social economic development in Nigeria.
Consequently, violence is usually accompanied with wanton loss of lives, property, instability, infrastructural destruction among others, while social economic development contributed to the advancement and improvement in the standard of living increase in the life of people. Perhaps, no nation can survive a test of time when it’s drowned in the menace of violence and moreover no nation can actually develop under the prevalence of crisis violence and upheavals.
Therefore, in order for a nation to have a bit of development it should do away with all violent like attitudes. However, political violence is a form of violent relations and incompatibility of interest goals and ambitions between individuals’ groups and political structures in the process of attaining power and keeping it. To put it differently, political violence emanates during when elections are conducted and economic development after election is concluded in the state. This action is usually accompanied with various act of violence in Nigeria which is not usually the same in other countries of the world.
Before the attainment of independent in 1960 Nigeria had recorded myriads of violence chiefly among which is political. This problem however could be traced to 1922 when the first election was conducted and this has continued unabated till this present-dispensation, violence has done no nation any good has earlier observed rather it’s mark remains inextripable.
In the precolonial times, many of the traditional village democracy that was practiced in some geo-political environment has the needed popular support of the electorate and the citizens at large. Consequently, the history of modern democracy in Nigeria is chequered with one from of violence and another, this according to Nweke (2006), the emergence of political violence in sourced through the nature of party formation which was ethnoregionally based.
This was followed by the regionalization of Nigeria as created by Richard Constitution of 1946 Anu and Uwanaju (2011) wrote that at independence, political conflicts over the centre stage of nation building in Nigeria and its multiplier effect gave birth to the factor that led to Nigeria civil war of 1967 – 1970.
Human rights watch revealed that the recent post-presidential election violence claimed 800 lives, while the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) said that more than 37 villages were attacked, the Agency also revealed that 2,500 houses were destroyed while about 10,000 families were affected (Awofadeji; 2011 quoted in Ani 2012).
Since no nations can survive under the sanction of continuous violence in a state, it’s therefore against this backdrop that his work examines political violence and socio-economic development in Nigeria using Akwa Ibom State as a case study.
1.1 Statement of the Problem
In every democratic dispensation, elections have come to be known as the acceptable means through which leaders are changed. Election is seen as the process whereby qualified adult citizens select their leaders. This process however is characterized with all forms of violence ranging from thuggery, snatching of ballot boxes, killings, arson, assassination of political opponents, the list is endless. And with these singular vicious acts many lives are usually lost, properties wantonly destroyed, infrastructures and facilities that huge sum of money was expended is usually shattered and above all it creates great animosity and acrimony among the citizens.
Moreover, rather than save as a means of exercising legitimate political obligations, that will institute good leaders for effective governance and socio-political development in a state it then turn out to be a means of recruiting thieves and touts into the government which later culminates into political instability, under development and execution of wrong policies which are prevalence in Nigeria at large and Akwa Ibom State in particular.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
a. The main objective of the study is to examine the effect of political violence on socio-economic development in Nigeria.
b. Specifically, the study will:
1, examine the causes of political violence in Nigeria.
2. investigate the effects of political violence in Nigeria.
3. critically examine the natures of political violence on sociopolitical development of Nigeria.
4. examine the roles of government institutions in addressing political violence in Akwa Ibom State.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were raised to guide the study:
1. What are the causes of political violence in Nigeria?
2. What are the effects of political violence in the socio-political development of Nigeria?
3. What are the natures of political violence in Nigeria?
4. What are the roles of government institutions in addressing political violence in Akwa Ibom State?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were stated in null form and tested at .05 level of significance,
1. There is no relationship between political violence and sociopolitical development in Nigeria.
2. There is no relationship between the causes of political violence and socio-political development in Nigeria.
3. There is no relationship between the roles of government institutions in curbing of political violence and socio-political development in Akwa Ibom State.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The significance of this study lies in the difference it will make in the entrenchment of democratic principles in Nigeria's political s
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