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1.1 Background to the Study
In a developing country like Nigeria, training and development of manpower resources is highly needed in virtually all business organizations for its effectiveness. It is hard for any business organization to exist without adequate manpower hence it is an indispensable tool for any business organization. For Managers to perform their functions effectively there must be well designed training and development programs to enable them enhance their performance. These training programmes may range from on-the-job training scheme aimed at exposing managers to new techniques adopted in modern office environments.
Manpower training and development must be based on a need analysis derived from a comparison of “actual performance’’ and behavior with “required performance’’ and behavior. Manpower training and development is one of the major ways organization invests in the workforce for greater return today and even in the foreseeable future.
Organizations are facing increased competition due to globalization, changes in technology, political and economic environments (Evans, Pucik & Barsoux 2002, 32) and therefore prompting these organizations to train their employees as one of the ways to prepare them to adjust to the increases above and thus enhance their performance. It is important to not ignore the prevailing evidence on growth of knowledge in the business corporate world in the last decade. This growth has not only been brought about by improvements in technology nor a combination of factors of production but increased efforts towards development of organizational human resources.
It is, therefore, in every organizations responsibility to enhance the job performance of the employees and certainly implementation of training and development is one of the major steps that most companies need to achieve this. As is evident that employees are a crucial resource, it is important to optimize the contribution of employees to the company aims and goals as a means of sustaining effective performance. This therefore calls for managers to ensure an adequate supply of staff that is technically and socially competent and capable of career development into specialist departments or management positions (Afshan, Sobia, Kamran & Nasir 2012, 646).
The question that may arise in many instances is why human resources are important. Bearing in mind that human resources are the intellectual property of the firm, employees prove to be a good source of gaining competitive advantage (Houger 2006), and training is the only way of developing organizational intellectual property through building employees competencies.
In order to succeed. Organizations have to obtain and utilize human resources effectively. Organizations, therefore, need to design its human resource management in ways that fit into the organization’s structure as this it will make the organizations achieve their goals and objectives. Moreover, it is also important for organizations to assist their workforce in obtaining the necessary skills needed and, increase commitment.
The management of human resources in Nigeria in general and Federal Ministry of Transport (PHCN) in particular is rather challenging as most organizations have difficulties finding proper human resources.
This may partly be a result of the different kinds of problems, for example, political instability, corruption, bureaucracy, poor infrastructure, low levels of education and purchasing power, diseases and famine known to prevail in the African business context (Kamoche 2002, 994 – 995).
Training as the crucial area of human management, is the fastest growing segment of personnel activities. Training which is referred to as a course of diet and exercise for developing the employees’ affective, cognitive and psychomotor skills assist the organizations to have a crucial method of developing the employee towards enhancing his productivity. At times, some companies go beyond establishing their own schools for training and retraining their staff at no cost expense to the trainee.
The main aim of training and development programmes in service organizations is to enable employee’s increase their productivity, productivity on the other hand is the end product of training and development as well as a measure of the output of the result from a given input. Managers plays a very vital role in the service organization in the realization of the organizational goal, he therefore needs to be constantly exposed to regular training programmes to increase his skills to enable him adapt to
technologically world of business.
The primary task of Federal Ministry of Transport is to prepare her staff for advancement in their fields and is to support and promote manpower development and training programs that are relevant to employee’s career development, improve employee’s morale and competitive on the job.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
This research as it deals with the training and development of employees in service organizations is intended to find out the efficiency and effectiveness of training and development programme in service organization with reference to Federal Ministry of Transport. Since Federal Ministry of Transport is an organization governing the use of transportation in Nigeria serves as a source of transportation around the Nation
Most of the employers have reported the inefficiency of some staff in business organization in Nigeria, though this efficiency could be attributed to their non possession of the requisite skills and competencies. The adverse effect of (Iwuoha, 2009) nepotism, god fatherism and favoritism during recruitment exercise has effects on productivity. The resultant effect of this is that such employees employed without due employment procedures find it extremely difficult to cope with the ever improving technologically business environment, the problem of the study put in a question form is, what type of training should the employees be exposed to enable them move with the demands of the ever-changing business world?
1.3 Research Questions
The following research questions guided the study
i. What type of training programs is available to employees in Federal Ministry of Transport?
ii. How often are development programs mounted for employees in Federal Ministry of Transport?
iii. What are the impacts of training and development programmes on the productivity of the employees in service organization?
1.4 Objectives of the study
The main objective of this is to find out the adequacy of training and development programme provided to the employees in Federal Ministry of Transport. Specifically, the study intends to:
i. Identify the type of training schemes available to the employees in Federal Ministry of Transport.
ii. Ascertain how often the development programmes are mounted for
employees in Federal Ministry of Transport.
iii. Determine the impact of training and development programmes on the employee’s performance in Federal Ministry of Transport.
1.5 Statement of Hypotheses
The under listed null hypotheses were tested in this study at 0.05 level of significance.
H01: There is no significance difference between the mean ratings of senior and junior employers regarding the type of training schemes available to employees in Federal Ministry of Transport.
H02: There is no significance difference between the mean ratings of experience and inexperience employers in respect of how often the development programmes are mounted for employees in Federal Ministry of Transport.
H03: There is no significance difference between the mean ratings of senior and junior employers as to the impact of training and development programmes on the performance of employees in Federal Ministry of Transport.
1.6 Significance of the Study
In Nigeria today, the desire of rapid economic development and technological advancement make this study a subject of significance. To this end, various debates, researches, Conferences and Seminars have been conducted by workers.
This study will be of invaluable assistance to Management Development Institutes, employers of labour, the government, policy makers, politician, administrators, human resources personnel, researchers, students and future administrative leaders.
It is expected that the study will inform the heads of organizations that to increase workers performance, there is the need to have and retain well trained and motivated employees.
It is also to help develop and maintain a quality work life, which will provide an opportunity for employee’s ‟ job satisfaction and self- actualization”.
Nonetheless, it will help managers of various organizations to generate ideas and solution to problems based on the best way to run training in their organization in order to achieve desired goals and objectives. Finally, the study will aid management to introduce modern schemes for training and development; to be able to meet the challenges of change in the future.
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The study centers on the staff of Federal Ministry of Transport who have at one time or the other been a part of the training conducted by the training school. This study is limited to Federal Ministry of Transport because; it cannot cover all the national districts across Nigeria. The scope of this study covers the period of 2018 – 2019
It is a national district with a considerable staff strength that could facilitate adequate reliability and validity of the study. Moreover, accessibility and/or availability of data to the researcher coupled with time and financial constraints can limit the scope.
1.8 Definition of Concepts
Effects were made at defining the following terminologies used in this study to avoid ambiguity and elicit proper understanding.
Human resource management: This is the way organizations manage their staff and help them to develop (McCourt & Eldridge 2003, 2) in order to be able to execute organizations’ missions and goals successfully.
Human resource development: This is the integration of individual, career and organization development roles in order to achieve maximum productivity, quality, opportunity and fulfillment of organizations members as they work to accomplish the goals of the organization (Pace, Smith & Mills 1991, 6).
Training: This is a type of activity which is planned, systematic and it results in enhanced level of skill, knowledge and competency that are necessary to perform work effectively (Gordon 1992).
Development: This is a broad ongoing multi-faceted set of activities (training activities among them) aimed at bringing someone or an organization up to another threshold of performance, often to perform some job or a new role in the future (McNamara 2008).
Manpower: Total supply of personnel available or engaged for a specific job or task (Business Dictionary)
Planning: This is an act of formulating a program for a definite course of action (Financial Dictionary)
Employee performance: This is defined as the outcome or contribution of employees to make them attain goals (Herbert, John & Lee 2000) while performance may be used to define what an organization has accomplished with respect to the process, results, relevance and success Uganda National Development Program (1995). Afshan et al. (2012) define performance as the achievement of specific tasks measured against predetermined or identified standards of accuracy, completeness, cost and speed. Employee performance can be manifested in improvement in production, easiness in using the new technology, highly motivated workers.
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