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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Tender to a layman means many things such as to pamper a child, something that is young and so on. But in this context, tender is defined as “An offer made in writing by one party to another to execute certain supply contract/commodity slated at a stated cost”.
Tendering is the process of making an offer, bid or proposal or expressing interest in response to an invitation or request for tender.
The dictionary of purchasing and supply management defines tender and tendering as offers from without callous, usually in sealed envelope, delivered by a time and date specified in the invitation to tendering from supply of goods and services. Uzor (2004:440) in CIPS, tendering can be defined as the public release by an organization of the requirements of goods or services for a project in order to allow formal bids to be made to supply the goods or services. Lyson (1996) also defined tendering as a purchase procedure whereby potential suppliers are invited to make a form and unequivocal offer of the price and terms which on acceptance shall be the basis of the subsequent contract. Chilaka o. and Amanze c. defines tender as an offer to sell at the right price indicated and can be converted into a contract by acceptance in the form of a buyer’s order.
Tender as an offer to sell at the price indicate and can be converted into a contract by accepting the offer in the form of a buyer’s order.
Perhaps, tendering is the very first opportunity for the buyers to have a full detail of the supplier and for the suppliers to improve their services level is the most important element. The public sector management has in their part made numerous contributions to effective and efficient management of contract in the public sector. Several restrictions has been made to see that tenders and tendering are dully observed. For instance, no contract work involving construction shall be considered by tender’s board unless for the reasons as:
(a) The land has been acquired and the topography map on soil tested except where it has been approved by the Architect and it is not necessary. The document relating to the land, the survey map, the soil, test report or certificate of example by the architect should then pay off contract document to be presented to the board. See newly reviewed financial regulations (2000)
i. Architect design
ii. Structure design
iii. Mechanical design
iv. Bill of qualities
Furthermore, in chapter 32 of financial regulation (2000) the conditions governing the local purchase of stores are set out and subject to those condition all local purchases of stores etc and all work and service costing over N500,000 must be obtained by contract after public tender. It must be recorded that tendering has been misused, mis-managed or even mis-understood.
This single cause of poor contract collection of mobilization fees is carefully considered. The essence of this research therefore is to examine on evaluation of the use of effective an efficient tendering in improving public sector contract management and administration.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE STUDY
(a) A greater number of problem have bedeviled public sector tender which has had great affection on public sector procurement. The quality of contract entered by the public sector organization. The entire contract system has gone sour as a result of mis-management, corruption, misapplication of rule and regulation set to be adhered to in contracting for goods and services.
(b) Another problem facing public sector tendering is the issue of Nigeria factor where the nation suffer while the individual grows, selfishness, political consideration, godfatherism, embezzlement of public fund, contract abandonment, etc. all these have in no small measure affected the quality of tendering which in turn affect the quality of public sector.
(c) The out date nature of our financial or stores regulation which guides the operations of public procurement as well as public sector tendering gin the greatest problem of our public sector tendering and therefore has serious implication on the efficiency and effectiveness of public sector contract management and administration.
1.3 Objectives of the study
This study was guided by the following objectives
(i) To establish the extent to which duration taken in tendering influence effectiveness of tendering Process in Public Sector in Enugu state
(ii) To examine the extent to which ethical practices influence the effectiveness of tendering process in Public Sector in Enugu state
(iii) To establish how training of employees influence the effectiveness of tendering process in Public Sector Enugu state.
(iv) To examine the extent to which record management influence the effectiveness of tendering process in Public Procurement in Enugu state
(v) To determine the extent to which ICT usages in tendering influence effectiveness of tendering process in Public Sector in Enugu state.
1.4 Research Questions
The study sought to answer the following questions:
1.4.1To what extent does the duration taken in tendering influence effectiveness of tendering Process in public Sector in Enugu state?
1.4.2Do ethical practices influence the effectiveness of tendering process in Public sector in Enugu state?
1.4.3How does training of employees influence the effectiveness of tendering Process in Public Sector Enugu state?
1.4.4What is the extent to which record management influence the effectiveness of tendering process in Public Procurement in Enugu state?
1.4.5Does ICT usage in tendering influence effectiveness of tendering process in Public Sector in Enugu state?
1.5 Hypotheses of the Study
The study sought to test the following hypotheses:
1. Ho Duration taken in tendering does not significant influence effectiveness of the tendering process
2. Ho Ethical practices does not significantly influence effectiveness in tendering process
3. Ho ICT usage in tendering does not significantly influence effectiveness in tendering process.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE TO THE STUDY
An evaluation of the use of tenders in public sector procurement cannot be overstated. This has become more important these days where replacement costs are usually higher than the initial estimated cost.
When the need to reach the rural areas through development project that touch the lives of the rural masses has increased.
Thus, the study is relevant in the following ways:
1. This study if relevant because it will help the researcher in acquiring skills and experience in conducting practical investigation on important issues especially on tenders and tendering and other related matter in the public and private sector in the future.
2. The study will give the researcher an insight on how tender and public sector contract are administered and managed.
3. This research work is also very essential to the researcher as it is one of the important requirement for the awards of the higher national diploma in purchasing and supply management.
4. When this study is completed, it will provide useful information to the public sector organization that is involved in one form of contract administration and management.
5. This study when completed will not only provide new and indepth insight as per the weakness and current tendering and contract practices and procedures. This research work will expose the weakness of the system but will also be helpful to the system, the organizations, both private and public sector and to the other student who may be interested in further research into public sector tendering and contract management and administration.
1.7 THE SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study has been limited to the public sector organization and has not crossed borders of the other sectors of the economy as to allow for more detailed investigation into the impact of tendering on public sector contract management and administration in Nigeria. For proper understanding of the impact of tendering in the management and administration of the public sector contract, this study would have covered all the ministries department, agencies, board, even the local government areas in the country, but the researcher after due consideration of various variables and implication decided to concentrate on the study of the implications of efficient and effectiveness of tender in the administration and management of contract in the Bureau for public procurement Enugu, Enugu state. In doing this, the researcher concerted on most of the department and units that have one or other things that has to do with the subject matter of this study. These departments or units include administration, engineering, planning, finance of these areas will give a great insight as to what takes place in other ministries, departments, boards, agencies etc.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
Since the researcher is a student, getting permission and covering of long distance was a limiting factor. Research assistants were of help as they distributed the questionnaires and collected them hence overcoming the challenges of time.
The researcher a
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