URBANIZATION AND PREVENTION OF CRIME IN ETINAN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, AKWA IBOM STATE

URBANIZATION AND PREVENTION OF CRIME IN ETINAN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, AKWA IBOM STATE

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ABSTRACT

This mini project aimed to Critically evaluate the causes of conflict among resident in uyo metropolis and modalities of resolving them. Conflicts have negative connotations, invoke negative feelings and often lead to destruction and whether the effect of conflict will be good or bad depends on the strategies used to deal with it.   Conflict as a potential force contributing to the performance of individuals. Thus, it is necessary to pay attention to causes of conflict and correct them in order to improve group performance. This study developed three objectives to guide the study, these are: To determine the causes of conflict among resident in Uyo Metropolis ;to determine modalities of resolving conflict among resident of Uyo metropolis and  to determine types  of conflict among resident of Uyo Metropolis. The study uses survey research design with purposely sampling technique. The target population (1000) was all the male and female resident in the area where the study was conducted. The sample size of 100 were derived from 10% of the target population. The questionnaire was an instrument used in collection of data from the respondent after prior validation from two lecturers in the faculty of education and department of social studies respectively. The study also uses simple percentage in the analysis of the data in chapter four. Recommendations were enumerated at the end which if implemented properly and accurately would help a long way in resolving the conflict in the society of man.


CHAPTER ONE

1.1 INTRODUCTION

 Conflict occurs between people in all kinds of human relationships and in all social settings. Because of the wide range of potential differences among people, the absence of conflict usually signals the absence of meaningful interaction. Conflict by itself is neither good nor bad.  However, the manner in which conflict is handled determines whether it is constructive or destructive (Deutsch & Coleman, 2000). Conflict is defined as an incompatibility of goals or values between two or more parties in a relationship, combined with attempts to control each other and antagonistic feelings toward each other (Fisher, 1990). The incompatibility or difference may exist in reality or may only be perceived by the parties involved. Nonetheless, the opposing actions and the hostile emotions are very real hallmarks of human conflict. Conflict has the potential for either a great deal of destruction or much creativity and positive social change (Kriesberg, 1998). Therefore, it is essential to understand the basic processes of conflict so that we can work to maximize productive outcomes and minimize destructive ones. Like other parts of the world, Nigeria’s  historical landscape is dotted with cases of ethno political conflict and violence, which climaxed in Nigerian civil war 1967 to 1970. These conflicts result from different value systems, aggressive competition for land, water, political resources and the unhealthy competition of some community leaders. There is hardly a year where there is no major violent community conflict in Nigeria (Banjo 1998, Obasanjo, 1999 and Etuk et al., 2006). In recent times, the situation has grown from ordinary armed conflict to hostage taking of workers of multinational oil corporations, relatives of wealthy community members, politicians during election periods as well as bombing of churches, media houses and other government buildings. These scenarios have resulted in the loss of lives and wanton destruction of properties worth billions of naira. In Akwa Ibom State, the situation is not different. Akwa Ibom State being one of the thirty-six states located in the southern Nigeria is embroiled in one form of conflict or the other particularly the agrarian communities. According to the Department of States Services (cited by IFPCR, 2002), since 1987 several bloody communal classes have occurred in Akwa Ibom State. For instance, Udom (2004) and Uboh (2004) cited in Akpaeti (2005) reported conflict  in and between the following communities in the States: Oku Iboku versus Ikot offiong/Mbiabo (1999); Nwaniba versus Ifiayong Usuk (1996); Mbiakong versus Ifiayong Usuk (2003): Ikot Umo Essien versus Ngwa in Abia State (1968-89, 1970-70 and 1996-97); Ika (2003 and continued) and Eastern Obolo (2001). In more recent times, we had Etinan-Afaha Nsit crisis (2005), conflict between Eyoabasi and Ilue communities (2011) and between Efiat versus Ebughu communities (2012). These spates of conflict have impacted on economic activities of these communities. In spite of the common feature of conflict in Akwa Ibom State, empirical information on its impact on agricultural production is virtually nonexistent. Several reports on conflict in the region dwell on the causes, actors and assertion of potential impact (Ojo, 2002). The import of the negative effect of conflict in the region on individuals, organizations and the state may not be clkkear to the stakeholders in the absence of empirically established and tested information.

In Uyo metropois, Between January and April of 2015, election violence continued, resulting in the reported deaths of up to five people. Additionally, in March the wives of airport employees carried out a protest in favor of higher wages, and in June a man killed his aunt over a private matter. Student protests at the University of Uyo (UNIUYO) over management decisions to not allow student unions on campus also led to violent clashes in 2014 . The school was forced to briefly shut down in June after a protest turned violent, destroying school property and killing several students. Also affecting UNIUYO, in May 2014, the residence of the University’s Vice-Chancellor was reportedly attacked by gunmen. Similar clashes also broke out during a student protest on the Uyo campus of the Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic in September 2014, with several people injured. In October, it was reported that a clash between PDP supporters over a list of delegates for the party primaries left one dead while in December there were reports of protests following the announcement of results of the primary elections. A violent clash among three rival cult groups was also reported in October 2013, killing seven. Additionally, in 2013 there were multiple violent protests, including one in April against a company’s employment policies. Within and around the capital city of Uyo, there was a series of killings reported in 2012-2013, including that of a former government official in October 2012.

There is no single practical definition of conflict; rather, different views exist on a continuum. While some perceive it as a negative situation which must be avoided at any cost, others see it as an occurrence which could be managed and another category consider it as opportunity that must be exploited to the best advantage. Whatever the position upheld on this continuum of viewpoints on conflict, it is certain that a continual state of conflict is not desirable for any meaningful community and national development (Nebgen, 1978). Rather, conflicts constitute a threat to community peace, stability and development as well as having serious implications for tribal co-existence, especially in a multi-ethnic and multi-tribal nation like Nigeria. The term “conflict” could be best understood by dividing the theories of conflict into functional, situational and interactive. Supporters of the functional approach consider conflict as serving a social function while those who view it as situational suggest that it is an expression under certain situations and the third category views conflict as an interactive phenomenon. Coser (1967), belonged to the functional school of thought and according to him, conflict serve the function of pushing society and resulting to emergence of new institutions, technology and economic systems. The major contribution of Coser was the determination of the functional and dysfunctional roles of conflict. Robbin (2005) defines functional conflict as the conflict that supports the goals of the group and improves its performance while dysfunctional/destructive conflict is the one that hinders group performance. A supporter of the situational school, Bercovitch (2011), defines conflict as a “situation which generates incorruptible goals or values among different parties”. For Bercovitch (2011), conflict depends on the situation. Conflict arises because of different conditions, such as the influence of a person and external factors. A representative of the interactive view, Folger (1993) defines conflict as “the interaction of interdependent people who perceive incompatible goals and interference from each other in achieving these goals”. Rahim (1986) posited that most conflicts have negative connotations, invoke negative feelings and often lead to destruction and whether the effect of conflict will be good or bad depends on the strategies used to deal with it but Robbins, et al. (2003) considers conflict as a potential force contributing to the performance of individuals. Thus, it is necessary to pay attention to causes of conflict and correct them in order to improve group performance (Robins, 2005). Bodtker and Jameson (2001) therefore suggested conflict resolution training and direct intervention as some of the ways to influence the communities against conflict.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Conflict is a very common scenario in our everyday life. It is also very common at our workplace. Workplace conflict (organizational) can trigger negative consequences affecting relationships (individual and group). It can lead to a serious loss of time and energy when there is a failure to address it competently. However, it can sometimes open up new opportunities for relationship-building if it is handled honestly, impartially, and smoothly. Moreover, conflict management strengthens relationships among groups and individuals in their workplaces and indeed, other arenas of life (Grosman, 2016). To ensure a productive and vibrant workplace, it is necessary to find out the causes of workplace conflicts. Furthermore, understanding workplace conflicts and applying management strategies can produce a sound and friendly workplace. This is where the necessity of conflict management comes in, which is examined in detail in this paper. Conflict management is necessary to keep harmony within the group. In the discourse of Political Science and Sociology, it is hotly debated whether human beings by nature are ‘selfish, introvert, and greedy’ Contrary to popular belief, modern scientific inquiries have found little or no evidence for the notion that human beings are genetically aggressive. Why do people gravitate towards conflicts? Why do conflicts happen in the society and why do people embroil themselves in conflicts so frequently? Once conflicts have arisen, how can they be resolved in a manner that is acceptable to all parties concerned? It on this bases that the study is carried out to Critically Evaluates the causes of conflict among resident in Uyo Metropolis and modalities of resolving them.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The fact that a project consist of varieties of people from different background, ethnicity and religion or belief defines conflict itself. Often times, the construction project brings together individuals or organizations that are separate and disparate to form what has been termed a temporary multi organization or a temporary project coalition (Murray et al., 1999; Rawlinson, 1999 cited in Martin, 2013) it therefore means that people are working against each other, in such a manner that what one wants is incompatible with that which the other wants. Deustch (1973, cited in Mba, 2013), Hence, it is virtually impossible for people with diverse background skills and norms to work together; make decisions, and try to meet project goals and objectives without conflict. Although conflict is one of the things most of us dislike intensely, it is inevitable. Most often when we try to avoid conflict, it will nevertheless seek us out. Some people wrongly hope that conflict will go away if it is ignored. In fact, conflict ignored is more likely to get worse, which can significantly reduce project performance. The best way to reduce conflict is to confront it, (Verma, 1998). The nature of construction industry is such that there is an inherent conflicting issue between the major construction project stakeholders, participants, owners, design professionals, consultants, and contractors. Given the inevitability of conflicting interests of human nature, one must be wondering whether there is a hope for the industry for reducing the intensity and extent of such interests. Because naturally it is impossible for humans to get entire satisfaction in any aspect of any works, no matter how advanced and sophisticated the technology becomes, the scheduling methods improve, and construction methods become hi-tech, the never ending war of interests between the major roles of a construction project are likely to affects the potential performance of the industry (Shafia and Khamidi, 2013).

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following  objectives were formulated  to guide the study.

1. To determine the causes of conflict among resident in Uyo Metropolis

2. To determine modalities of resolving conflict among resident of uyo metropolis

3 To determine types of conflict among resident of Uyo Metropolis

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions were formulated to guide this study. These are:

1. What are the causes of conflict among resident in Uyo Metropolis.

2. What are the modalities use in resolving conflict among resident in Uyo.

3. What are the types of conflict associated with resident of Uyo Metropolis.

1.5 Significance of the study

1. The study will be usefull to the new researcher who might have interest for further research. With the availability of materials on this topics, researcher of such might not be stressful since he or she may have set eyes on already made work.

2. The research will be useful to the individual: Based on this research a person might crap a copy and read the objectives of the study then gain an insight of the tools which can be adopted in presenting conflict in the society.

3. It will be of help to the government: with the availability  of materials on this topic, the government  agencies, will know that when making policies, thus, education of the citizen should  be considered  paramount because  the higher the educational  attainment, the lesser the conflict committed.

4. Finally, the research will be useful to both literate and illiterate in all ramifications if properly implanted as recommended.

1.6 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

Conflict: Refers to some form of friction, or discord arising within a group when the beliefs or actions of one or more members of the group are either resisted by or unacceptable to one or more members of another group

Evaluation: Is a systematic determination of a subject's merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards.

Resident: A person who lives somewhere permanently or on a long-term basis.

Uyo: Is the state capital of Akwa Ibom, an oil producing state. Uyo Metropolis. Motto(s): Land of Promise. Uyo is located in Nigeria.





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