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1.1   Background of the Study

People have devise and lived under various forms of government in different countries of the world of which democracy has been adjudge to be the best. This explains the democratic appeal to every human organisation from antiquity. Schumpeter (1952:269), defines democracy as that institutional arrangement for arriving at a political decision in which individual acquire the power to decide by means of a competitive struggles for the people’s votes. This definition suggest the importance of competitive elections in a democracy.

Bone and Raney (1971:1), posited that in a democratic nation, periodic election of executive and legislature constitute the principal institutional devices for making sure that government derives its just powers from the consent of the governed. Ebegbulem and Adams (2008:245), averred that in any democratic system, elections constitutes the soul of the democratic process.

Election which climax at a successful conduct of a genuine and credible voting, has become an important element in modern democratic system and determines to a considerable extent the level or degree of democratization in any polity. In today’s world, election is serving a great purpose both in war torn authoritarian as well as democratic societies. It serves as a means of transition from bitter experience of war to civility in former war torn states. It provides an opportunity for freedom in previous authoritarian regimes and offers citizens the space for free expression as is obtainable today in Egypt, Libya and other part of the world. It offers the government a unique opportunity for legitimacy and is also a recognized way of building trust in former authoritarian states and also a way to validate negotiated political pacts. (Brown, 2003, Sisk, 2008).

Election serves as a transitory process in a stable democracy and a way of strengthening an already assumed perfect system. It provides a platform for debate, persuasion and common rules for choosing representatives of the people who can serve in the executive, legislative and other institutions of the government. Elections is in this sense a critical means of social conflict management through peaceful deliberations and decision-making process in which parties abides by the pre-election promises, and the looser given an opportunity to provide constructive criticism as an opposition or merely wait till the next election period.

On the other hands, because of the freedom associated with election, and the momentum it generates, it thus allows individuals, groups and parties to use words and/or actions that are capable of intimidating, coercing, humiliate or cause even bodily harm to  the electorates. (Amekwe and Kushie, 2011:8). Moreso, elections provides the space whereby people retain, regain and usurp power, and the space to highlight social differentiation of individuals and party opponents.  Therefore, players tap into the deep vulnerability created by such interact to create violence.

Sisk, (2008), however warned that negative expression of social differentiation is likely to lead to extreme clash between opposition supporters as witnessed in Nigeria and other part of the world. Such tendencies can lead to high scale violence and bring the country to a near level of terrorism and ungovernability.  It can also leads to the proliferation of small arms because more often, the machinery for perpetrating electoral violence are mostly unemployed youths who resort to use those arms for other social vices.

Under such a circumstance, election in the word of Rebert Dahl (1973) and Przeworski (1991) becomes a mutual security pact that operates with the consistent consent of elites under condition of bound uncertainty. However, Sisk highlights election as two  sides of the same coin providing voice and legitimacy when the process is followed, and all stakeholders adhere to the agreed framework and processes, and also a violence induced factor when on the contrary particularly in fragile state.

In recognition of the immense benefits that comes with democratic government, mostly the enhancement of human dignity, Nigeria embrace democratic governance on May 29, 1999 (marking the birth of the Fourth Republic). However, the task of consolidating the nations democracy seems to be whittle down by electoral malpractice and electoral violence. This muster was considerably responsible for the nation’s previously failed attempt at democratic experience since independence.

Since the 1999 to 2011 elections, the Nigerian electoral and political landscape has fallen from par to below par and has moved from violence to greater violence. (Awukwe and Kushie, 2011). The level and magnitude of electoral violence has risen and the political elites have often converted poverty ridden unemployed Nigerian youths into readymade machinery for the perpetration of electoral violence. This is however linked partly to the political system and institution that in theory has failed to encourage political participation, and in practice, seen the political elites forming the bulk of the sponsors and perpetrators of electoral violence as the case was in the post electoral violence which erupted in the northern part of Nigeria after the April 16, 2011 presidential election. In the light of the above; the post electoral violence  of 2011 Presidential election is viewed as a threat to national peace and security of the country.


Democratic governance have been adjudge the best form of government ever devise by man. This is due to the immense benefit it brings to the lives of the people. Besides, electoral credibility has been identified as one of the important factors that aid the consolidation of a democratic regime.

However, the Nigerian electoral system has been characterized with electoral violence and other forms of electoral malpractice. The  political Barons (political elites) do not abide by the rules of the game but are out to grab power by all means and as such anything that brings victory is fair. This continuous electoral violence tends to whittle down the citizen confidence in the electoral process as it poses a threat to national peace and security.


The objectives this study seeks to achieve are:

1.      To examine post electoral violence in Nigeria and its impact on national peace and security of the country.

2.      To examine the causes of 2011 post electoral violence in Nigeria

3.      To make suggestion towards the prevention of future post electoral violence in Nigeria

4.      To determine if the problems militating against the smooth conduct of elections in Nigeria are insurmountable.


1.      Does post electoral violence impact negatively on national peace and security in Nigeria?

2.      Is 2011 post electoral violence in Nigeria caused by the political elites?

3.      Are the causes of post electoral violence in Nigeria insurmountable?

4.      What can be done to prevent future occurrence of post electoral violence in Nigeria?


Issues surrounding post electoral violence are numerous. The significance of the project therefore is rooted within the contours of sustainable democracy. As Nigeria continues to suffer post electoral violence, the state has continuously been threatened with ultimate demise or collapse due largely to the inability of the state to manage and earn legitimacy emanating from post electoral violence. All these have created tensions and conflicts, sometimes wars, within the system which thus threaten the sustenance of democratic values, national security, stability and peaceful coexistence.

As such, the study will be significant in the following areas:

The findings from the study will give more insight into the nature and character of post electoral violence in Nigeria.

Again, since the scope of the study will cover the present democratic dispensation, the findings will give an insight into the degree of post electoral violence in general elections in Nigeria and Delta State in particular.

In relation to the above, the study will give stakeholders in the Nigerian project an idea of the direction at which the Nigerian democratic government vis-à-vis the level of post electoral violence.

The findings from this study will also assist the government and international organization in devising appropriate measures on how to tackle the growing problem of post electoral violence and how it affects Nigeria’s stability and that of Delta State in particular.

Above all, the study will contribute to existing stock of knowledge.


The scope of the study covers the effect of post electoral violence and its implication on economic activities from 1999 to 2015 general elections. In the course of the study; the researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study. Some of these constrain are;

(a)Availability of research material: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.      

(b)Time: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

(c)Finance: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.


Elections: It is defined as the institutional mechanism or process by which individual or groups of individuals are selected into official positions. It is the entire processes involved usually by the citizens of any democratic nations from the age of l8years to give legitimate mandate for those who are to govern them for a period of time as stipulated in the constitution. (Igbuzor 2010)

Democracy-This is essentially refers to the rule of many which is usually done through representation. It is a form of government in which the people have the freedom to choose who their leaders will be through free and fair election which could be direct or indirect. The word "democracy" according to Bangura (2013) is used to describe three different political systems. 'According to him, this system of government has to d o with the rule of man y and also a representation of the true interests of the people. These characteristics of democracy differentiate it from other forms of government that are dictatorial and which does not take cognizance of the wishes and desires of the people in whatever sphere be it in the choice of who represents them in government or in overall decision making. Democracy is a system of government that many countries of the world seek to acquire and those countries which have already acquired it seek to make it more developed for the purpose of reaping the dividends attached to such level of democratization.

Post electoral violence: Igbuzor (2010) sees post electoral violence as: any act of violence perpetuated in the course of political activities, including pre, during and post election periods, and may include any of the following acts: thuggery, use of force to disrupt political meetings or voting at polling stations, or the use of dangerous weapons to intimidate voters and other electoral process or to cause bodily harm or injury to any person connected with electoral processes.

Electoral Fraud: This involves the various forms of malpractices that distort the standard pattern of electoral process. It involves deliberate efforts to influence, manipulate and subvert the electoral processes in one’s favor (Ajayi, 2007).

Democratization: This is a process geared towards attaining democratic governance


This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows: Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

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