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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Human schistosomiasis otherwise called bilharzia, is a fresh water snail transmitted intravascular depilating disease resulting from infection by the parasitic dimorphic schistosomiasis trematode worms which lives in the blood stream of human should be. (Steinmann et al 2006) the World Health Organization (WHO) regards the disease as a neglected tropical disease, with an estimated 732 million person being vulnerable to infection worldwide in renowed transmission area. (WHO, 2014). Steinman and co-workers documented that over 200 millions individuals from Africa, Asia and South America are infected with this disease (Steimann, 2006). The WHO further estimated that schistosoma infection and geohelminth account of malaria. (Olveda et al 2013).
Humans get infected with this disease when they are contact with skin penetrating ceracria (egg). The prevalence of schistosomiasis, at present, is still high in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2008, 17.5 million people people were treated globally for schistosomiasis, 11.7 million of those from Saharan Africa only (WHO 2014).
Approximately 120 million individual in sub-Saharan Africa have schistosomiasis related systems while about 20 million undergo hardship as a result of chronic presentation of disease (Chistosulo 2000).
A study carried out in Nigeria reported that 2.3% of over 1000 cases carried of appendicitis had schistosome eggs discovered in historical sections, with 56% of the cases attributable by both species. In another study 4.2% of appendicitis cases were classified as schistosomiasis of appendix (Badmos, 2007). Schistosomiasis due to S.mansoni is on top of the list of the causes pulmonary hypertension worldwide, especially in areas where schistosomiasis is endemic (Lapa et al 2009).
Schistosomiasis is more rampart in poor rural communities especially places where fishing and agricultural activities are dominant. Domestic activities such as washing clothes and fetching water expose women and children to infection. Recreational activities like swimming and poor hygiene also make children vulnerable to schistosomiasis (WHO 2014). Human are usually infected by five species of Schistosomes, namely schistosoma mansoni, schistosoma haematobium, schistosoma japanicum, schistosoma mekongi and schistosoma intercalatum but the main burden of disease in sub-Saharan Africa is usually attributed to two species, namely; S.Mansoni and 5 haematogium and are referred to as the major schistosomiasis (Utzinger, 2009).
Biomphalaria snails are responsible for the transmission of S. Mansoni which is the source of hepatitis and intestinal schistosomiasis in palces like the Arabian countries, South America and Africa. Bulinus snail transmit SW.
1. To determine the prevalence rate of the infection
2. To evaluate the distribution of infection in terms of age and gender.
3. To determine the relationship between infection prevalence and water related activities.
4. To determine the species with the highest prevalence in area of study.
1.3 AIMS OF THE STUDY
The aim is to determine the true picture of the disease schistosomiasis in Kawo community area of Kaduna North Local Government in Kaduna State, and factors contributing to its spreads.
Cultural, social environmental and behavioural factors directly influence the prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis. It is important that these factors been identified so as to aid designing control programmes in several areas in Nigeria especially in Kaduna North Local Government Area. Another point is that there is complete lack of knowledge of the factors associated with the schisotomiasis transmission.
1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
This work is to be carried out in Kawo community area Kaduna North Local Government in Kaduna State as a case study. This is due to the fact that the community has a swampy and stagnant and water around and there are reported cases of the diseases in that area.
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