BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF WATER IN HALLS OF RESIDENCE IN UNIVERSITY OF BENIN

BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF WATER IN HALLS OF RESIDENCE IN UNIVERSITY OF BENIN

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRODUCTION

Water is indispensable and intricately connected to life, without which there is no life. This is the reason for which water must be given the necessary attention at all times. Good drinking water is not a luxury; it is one of the most essential amenities of life itself. The supply of safe drinking water to all has therefore engaged the attention of many individuals, groups, governmental organizations and private organizations. (Adetunde et al. 2010).

 Drinking water free of pathogenic organisms is fundamental to breaking one of the principal transmission routes of infectious disease. This fact has stimulated worldwide investment in the construction of water systems that are designed to meet stringent water quality standards. (Trevett, 2004). Waterborne pathogens, including a variety of viral, bacterial, algal and protozoan agents, account for much of the estimated 4 billion cases and 2.5 million deaths from endemic diarrheal disease each year. (Kosek et al. 2003). Increase in human population has exerted an enormous pressure on the provision of safe drinking water, especially in developing countries (Umeh et al. 2005). Unsafe water is a global public health threat, placing persons at risk for a host of diarrheal and other disease as well as chemical intoxication (Hughes et al. 2005). Unsanitary water particularly has devastating effects on young children in developing world. Each year, more than 2 million persons, mostly children less than 5 years of age, die of diarrheal disease (Kosek et al. 2003; Parashar et al. 2003). Nearly 90% of diarrheal-related deaths have been attributed to unsafe or inadequate-water supplies and sanitation conditions affecting a large part of the world’s population (Hughes et al. 2005; WHO 2004). An estimated 2.6 billion persons lack access to adequate sanitation (Okonko et al. 2008).

The University of Benin, Benin City, has 5 main halls of residence (halls 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5). There are also various staff quarters in the school: Junior Staff Quarter, Senior Staff Quarter, Dentistry Quarter and Doctor’s Quarter. These halls depend on borehole water stored in overhead tanks for their water supply. The problem of environmental pollution due to toxic metals has begun to cause concern now in most major metropolitan cities. The toxic heavy metals entering the ecosystem may lead to geo-accumulation, bioaccumulation and bio-magnification. Heavy metals like Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni and other trace elements are important for proper functioning of biological systems and their deficiency or excess could lead to a number of disorders (Ward, 1995). Food chain contamination by heavy metals has become a burning issue in recent years because of their potential accumulation in bio-systems through contaminated water, soil and air. Therefore, a better understanding of heavy metal sources, their accumulation in the soil and the effect of their presence in water and soil on plant systems seem to be particularly important issues of present day research on risk assessments (Rajesh et al., 2004). The main sources of heavy metals to vegetable crops are their growth media (soil, air, nutrient solutions) from which these are taken up by the roots or foliage (Ward, 1995). Most of our water resources are gradually becoming polluted due to the addition of foreign materials from the surroundings. These include organic matter of plant and animal origin, land surface washing, and industrial and sewage effluents (Karnataka State Pollution Control Board, 2002). Rapid urbanization and industrialization with improper environmental planning often lead to discharge of industrial and sewage effluents into lakes. The lakes have a complex and fragile ecosystem, as they do not have selfcleaning ability and therefore readily accumulate pollutants. Bellandur Lake, the largest one in Bangalore urban area, recently attracted a lot of public attention because of the formation of froth during rainy season due to chemicals (soaps, detergents, etc.) and biosurfactants. For the last few decades, the treated, partially treated and untreated wastewater has been discharged to this lake and the lake water is being used for farming purposes (Pruss et al., 2002). Individual rural homeowners are often responsible for providing and protecting their own water supplies. Where safety of these sources is concerned, no “short-cuts” can be taken. Protecting the quality of individual water supplies is a combination of controlling land use around the supplies and using proper water treatment techniques where necessary. Rural homeowners must assume responsibility for protecting their families from contaminated drinking water. Assistance in this regard can be obtained from a number of agencies (Ward, 1995). Local health authorities can answer questions relating to applicable local regulations; health hazards posed by contaminated water, and suggested procedures for sampling and analyzing drinking water for contaminants. In some cases, local health officials will analyze individuals‟ water samples for common pollutants at no cost or for a nominal charge. Complete well water analysis is the homeowner‟s responsibility and is not free. State regulatory agencies charged with water resource management can answer questions regarding water use. They usually also have information regarding the availability and suitability of water sources in the State. Such agencies usually administer safety regulations for dams as well (Ward, 1995).

THE NEED FOR WATER ANALYSIS

If water is badly polluted with raw sewage for example, it might be obvious from its appearance or odour. It might be coloured or turbid, have solids or oil floating on it. It might have a rotten odour or smell like industrial chemical. Many harmful and beneficial materials in water are invisible and odourless. In order to determine what materials are in water, we need to conduct chemical and microbiological analyses Water analysis involves the qualitative and quantitative determination of substances suspended or dissolved in water. Since the human body is approximately 70 percent water by weight, it is essential from a municipal water supply viewpoint that water delivered to consumers be free of pathogenic microorganisms, free of toxic components and aesthetically acceptable (WHO, 2004). Analysis of water is therefore necessary as it enables the determination of the nature of impurity and contamination and thus helps to determine their suitability for human consumption. Welcher (1963) says that chemical analysis is performed on water to ascertain its physiological or technological acceptability. In order to be used as healthful fluid for human consumption, water must be free from organisms that are capable of causing diseases and from minerals and organic substances that could produce adverse physiological effects. The only way to achieve this is by carrying out analysis on the water and consequently giving it adequate treatment.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Water pollution has been documented as a contributor to a wide range of health problems and disorders in humans. It has also been shown to have drastically negative impacts on wild animals and the environment as a whole. Water has been life sustaining substance which exist in liquid form, it is widely use in household activities and in production firm for production, a little contamination of water will lead to several health issues if not properly checked.

 1.1    AIM OF THE STUDY:

 This study is aimed at the bacteriological analysis of the water from these tanks.

1.2    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:

  1. To attain the total bacterial count of the water samples.
  2. To determine the coliform counts (Most Probable Number) of the water samples.
  3. To determine the species of bacteria present in the water.

1.3      RESEARCH  QUESTION:

1.   What is the total bacterial count of the sample water?

       2.   What is the total  coliform counts of the sample water?

       3.    What kind of species of bacterial is present in the water?

1.4      SCOPE OF STUDY

The study will cover the five hall of residence of the university of Benin, Benin, Edo state. The halls comprises of hall1,2,3,4,5 and it is been supply with water from an overhead borehole ta


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