The Complete Project Research Material is averagely 101 pages long and is in Ms Word Format, it has 1-5 Chapters. Major Attributes are Abstract, All Chapters, Figures, Appendix, References Level : MSc/PhD.
Get the complete project »
The antioxidant activity of the seed extract and fractions of Monodora tenuifolia (Fam. Annonaceae) was evaluated. The Monodora tenuifolia seed was extracted with pet ether 40-60°C to produce the crude extract. Fractionation of the extract by column chromatography using pet ether 60-80°C and diethyl-ether produced 2 fractions (F1) and (F2). Phytochemical analysis of Monodora tenuifolia seed extract showed the presence of some plant secondary metabolites, viz: alkaloids, flavonoids, proteins, carbohydrates, saponins, glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides, cardiac glycosides, tannins, steroidal aglycon while, 0 and C glycosides, anthracene glycosides and reducing sugar were absent. The 3 fractions showed the presence of vitamin A and vitamin El The pet-ether extract and the fractions (F1 and F P ) reduced CCle-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate. They also exhibited significant antioxidant activity in nitric oxide induced lipid peroxidation. The crude extract and diethylether fraction (F2) produced dose-dependent protective effect against lipid peroxidaiton and free radical generation in liver homogenate. The acute toxicity study with the crude extract showed no signs of obvious toxicity up to a dose level of 5000 mglkg. These results suggest that Monodora tenuifolia seed extract possessed significant antioxidant properties and could be used for the treatment of diseases associated with free radical generation.
1.I Antioxidant: An overview
Antioxidants are a group of substances, which when present at low concentrations, in relation to oxidizable substrates, significantly inhibit or dctlay oxidative processes, while often being oxidized themselves (Kanner et al., 1999).
The application of antioxidants are widespread, in industries they are used in preventing polymer from oxidative degradation, rubber and plastic from losing strength, gasoline from autooxidation, synthetic and natural pigments from discolouration and as additives to cosmetics, food (especially food with high fat content) beverages and baking products (Kanner et a/, 1999).
In recent years there has been an increase in the application of antioxidant in medicine as information is constantly gathered linking the development of human diseases to oxidative stress (Halliwell et a/., 1999). The generally accepted hypothesis in any biological system is that, an important balance must be maintained between the formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively). The reactive species such as superoxide (02)) hydrogen peroxide (H202), hydroxyl radical (OH), nitrogen oxide (NO), and hypochlorous acid (HOCI), are all products of normal metabolic pathways of human organs, but under certain condition, when in excess they can exert harmful effects.
To maintain an oxido/redox balance, organs protect themselves from the toxicity of excess ROSlRNS in different ways, including the use of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants.
OXIDATIVE STRESS DEFENSE SYSTEM
- Mitochondria ' - Peroxisomes * -Inflammatory Cells
- Vitamin C - Flavonoids - Glutathione
Fig. 1: Shows a balance between oxidative stress and defense system
. 11.1 Natural antioxidant of low and high molecular weight
Naturally occurring antioxidants of high or low molecular weight, can differ in their mechanism and site of action (Sahart, 2001). They can
be divided into the following categories: -
(b) High molecular weight proteins
(c) Low molecular weight antioxidants
a) Enzymes: The best studied cellular antioxidants are the enzymes, superoxide dimutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). These attenuate the generation of reactive oxygen species by removing potential oxidants or by transforming ROSIRNS into relatively stable compounds. SOD, which was discovered in the late 60s, catalyzes the transformation of the superoxide radical into hydrogen peroxide, which can then be further transformed by the enzyme catalase into water and molecular oxygen (Sahart, 2001). Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) reduces lipid peroxides (ROOH), formed by the oxidation of poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to a stable, non-toxic molecule hydroxyl fatty acid (ROH) (Sahart, 2001). Less well studied (but probably just as important) enzymatic antioxidants are the peroxiredoxins and the recently discovered sulfiredoxin. Other enzymes that have antioxidant properties (though this is not their primary role) include Paraxonase, Glutathione - strainsferases, and aldehyde, dehydrogenases (Current Medicinal Chemistry, 2005).
' b) High molecular weight proteins: These preventive antioxidants hinder the formation of new ROS. These antioxidants are protein that binds ROS to protect essential proteins. The group includes albumin, metallothonine, transferring, ceruloplasmin, myoglobin, happtoglobin and ferritin (Current Medicinal Chemistry, 2005).
These are all present in plasma and bind to redox active metals and limit the production of metal - catalyzed free radicals (Current
Medicinal Chemistry, 2005). Metals such as iron, copper, chromium, vanadium and cobalt are capable of redox cycling in which a single electron may be accepted or donated by the metal (Current Medicinal Chemistry, 2005). Albumin and ceruloplasmin can bind copper, ions, and transferin binds free iron. Haptoglobin binds heme-containing protein and can thus clear them from the circulations (Current Medicinal Chemistry, 2005). Both free and heme associated protein have pro-"oxidant properties due to their reaction with H202to form ferry1 speci
Share a Comment
You can find more project topics easily, just search
SIMILAR PHARMACOLOGY FINAL YEAR PROJECT RESEARCH TOPICS
» CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Medicinal plants, also called medicinal herbs, botanical drugs or natural drugs are plants that have similar p...Continue Reading »
52 pages | 94 hits | Source: PHARMACOLOGY
2. Evaluation of Phyto-Chemical and Medicinal Properties of Cannabis sativa Linn. (Family: Moraceae).» Abstract This work studied the various delivery systems (oral and parental formulations) of crude Cannabis. The stability, pharmacological and toxicol...Continue Reading »
222 pages | 302 hits | Source: PHARMACOLOGY
3. AWARENESS, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS TO ADVERSE DRUG REACTION REPORTING IN NNEWI NORTH L.G.A, ANAMBRA STATE.» ABSTRACT This descriptive cross sectional survey was conducted on healthcare professionals working at different healthcare facilities in Nnewi North L...Continue Reading »
52 pages | 17 hits | Source: PHARMACOLOGY
» CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of Study African traditional medicine is a medicine that is embedded in the religion of the people. In traditi...Continue Reading »
52 pages | 104 hits | Source: PHARMACOLOGY
» ABSTRACT The enumeration, identification and characterization of bacteria on used handkerchiefs in males was carried out. A total of forty (40) handke...Continue Reading »
52 pages | 232 hits | Source: PHARMACOLOGY
» CHAPTER ONE 1.0: INTRODUCTION 1.1: PHARMACOGNOSY A GENERAL OVERVIEW Pharmacognosy, the modern science of natural medicines, is based on traditional me...Continue Reading »
52 pages | 112 hits | Source: PHARMACOLOGY
7. PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES ON THE LEAVES OF THE DYCHORISTE PEDICELLATA AND TO DETERMINE THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF 70% ETHANOL EXTRACT IN MICE» CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION A large portion of the population of developing countries uses traditional medicine alone or in combination with orthodox dru...Continue Reading »
52 pages | 117 hits | Source: PHARMACOLOGY
8. ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATIONS OF THE ISOLATED COMPOUND OBTAINED FROM THE ETHYL ACETATE FRACTION OF Tridax procumbens Linn.» ABSTRACT Tridax procumens Linn is a tropically distributed medicinal plant of the family Aseteracceae. The plant bears daisy like yellow centered whit...Continue Reading »
52 pages | 135 hits | Source: PHARMACOLOGY