DETOXIFICATION AND ANTI-NUTRIENT REDUCTION OF JATROPHA CURCAS SEED CAKE BY FERMENTATION USING BACILLUS SPECIES

DETOXIFICATION AND ANTI-NUTRIENT REDUCTION OF JATROPHA CURCAS SEED CAKE BY FERMENTATION USING BACILLUS SPECIES

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ABSTRACT

Jatropha curcas seed cake is a by-product generated from the oil extraction of J. curcas

seed- a biodiesel producing plant‘s seed. Although, the seed cake contains a high level of

protein, it has Phorbol ester and some anti-nutritional factors such as phytic acid, saponin,

lectin and trypsin inhibitor making it not to be applied directly in the food or animal feed

industries. This study was aimed at detoxifying the toxin and reducing the anti-nutritional

factors in J. curcas seed cake by fermentation using Bacillus species. Three Bacillus strains

(Bacillus coagulans, Paenibacillus macerans, Paenibacillus polymyxa) 1.0 × 108 cells

MacFarland‘s standard per 100ml were used in the study. The seed cake used for the

detoxification was extracted both manually and with the use of a machine. This

fermentation was carried out on 10g of seed cake in 100ml of distilled water for 5 days with

submerged fermentation. Temperature (270 C, 300 C and 370 C), pH (4.5, 6.5, 8.5) and Time

(24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h and 120 h) were also varied. After fermentation the toxin and anti-

nutritional factor level was determined. Results showed that Paenibacillus macerans was

able to degrade the toxin and reduce the anti-nutritional factors in the seed cake more than

the other two. After fermentation phorbol ester A and B, phytic acid, saponin, lectin and

trypsin inhibitor were reduced by 76.4 %, 99.3 %, 56.3 %, 43.6 %, 58.8 % and 64.9 %

respectively. The reduction may be due to the activities of esterase, phytase and protease

enzymes. Jatropha curcas seed cake was detoxified by bacterial fermentation using the

three Bacillus strains and the rich protein fermented seed cake could be potentially used as

animal feed.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background Information

Jatropha curcas is a species of flowering plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. It is native to

the American tropics, especially Mexico and Central America (Janick and Robert, 2008). It

is cultivated in tropical and


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