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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The past fifteen years or more, the world has played host to a lot of technological innovations of functional value to the mass media. With these innovations came so alternations or change in the world.
Electronic communications involve the process by which message is sent across the globe through the use of computer, telephone. Unlike the fax system which allows one page of text to be transmit at a time, electronic communication facility allows several pages to be processed off line and through a single dialing, it allows these several pages of messages to be transmit to a gateway where they can be distributed to their various distributions. Furthermore, electronic communication involves any of several forms of information exchange between two or more computers through any of several methods of interconnection such as telephone line, satellite etc. This communication mode is rapidly spreading throughout the world as a fast, reliable and in most application, an in expensive form of communication. It is fast and inexpensive because it can use existing public telephone lines.The history of communication and information technology dates back the Shakespearian “ACTA Diura,” that is the first hallmark of readable and perusable information invention successfully and very glaring society is dynamic and so is the communication world.As society continue to grow, more and more horizons were explored and the opportunity to create something new. The present after that of the British with the primary aim of being a masters to pass out information and command to their subjects. Over the years, the broadcasting industry metamorphosed with charging western technology. The world is fast becoming a global village through the new communication, culture has been reduced into a more minute particles capable being held by our hands.According to Uche (1989: 101) “Nigeria possess one of the world most exciting press system”. It is really the birth of information super-highways.However, the Nigeria electronic media are under a hectic and trying situation where the simplistic perception of the mass media as facilitators of mass communication and their sophisticate function as social actors are seen as exercising great influence in the life of any society or nation.Importantly, technology plays a vital role in the broadcast media or any mass media in Nigeria. In the light of this fact, the Nigeria broadcast media employs the use of these new communication technologies which include computer internet, satellite/cable system, electronic mail (E-mail) and fax system among others.New communication technology, including accessible online publishing software and evolving mobile device technology means that citizens have the potential to observe and report more immediate than traditional media out let’s do. Swarms of amateur online journalists are putting this technology to use, on open publishing sites such as Indy media and on countless weblogs, adding a grassroots dimension to the media landscape. Bloggers and other amateur journalists are scoping mainstream news out lets as well as pointing out errors in mainstream articles, while people who have been made subjects of news articles are responding online, posting supplementary information to provide context and counter-points. Increasingly the public is turning to online sources for news, reflecting growing trust in alternative media.The computer among all the other multimedia technology plays an important role of educating the audience. According to the Aibsons (1975: 215) “New methods of educating everyone to his highest ability will require increase accounts of time, date, money and skill. Only computer assistance can many of these factors be developed to better levels of time”.
The computer communications are both progressing towards a compatible and useful co-existence, perhaps which is why Oeffinger (1989) called it” computer and communication.The broadcast media can be a source of education or information or even to all those linked to the computer network thereby employing traditional roles of impacting knowledge, informing and externalizing the audience.Thus, the computer technology as an interactive mass medium is always available matter providing the station with new vistas and opportunity of sharing information with recovers or reaching the mass audience.The scopes of the computer an educative medium has grown wider with the introduction of the internet. They can no longer be retracted strictly to education on the internets, website is a form of learning which broadcaster cannot fail to capitalize on the web is only one part of the u/internet which contains, a global facilities to document which are stored on computers connected to the internet. The web provides facilities to enable people learn, shop, conduct research, listen to news or music and also participate in live events from their computer screen.Another resources of the internet is the electronic mail (E-mail). It is the most popular resources provided by the telecommunication equivalent of the postal services that deliver letter to the home and office through the computer. More than 80 percent of print journalists use the internet to help them do research and add depth and breadth to the news stories they write, while third of all broadcast journalists download audio and video files from websites. E-mail is another technology that aids mass communication. It simple allows anyone with the type if terminal equipment used for on-line services to compose, edit, send, store, rely to, receive and file electronic messages.Another new communication technology used to the broadcast media is the satellite. The satellite has brought to our homes, the world out there. The role of the satellite is never more evidence as the audience sit in their homes viewing events even as they unfold live. Agba (2001: 40) maintains that “For the time direct from the theater city of operation and also from the city of Baghalad (Gulf war).The 2002 Africa nations’ cup which the Nigerian audience were able to view and listen to at their home at the same time matches which took place shows the tremendous impact of the satellite. Also the result concluded Olympic Games held in AternsGreccewas also another powerful impact of the satellite.According to Akpan (2003:37) “The new communication technologies have vastly increased intercultural communication for example, people of different cultures have more information about each and are not more accessible than before. This has been made possible through such new technologies like the cable satellite system.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It is saddening that despite the startling developments in media technology, TV broadcasting in Nigeria especially in Enugu state is yet to assimilate the new innovation or imbibe the realities of modern broadcasting. The advancement in media technology can only be said to be achieving the desired ends when they readily and continuously influence positively the operations of the Nigerian broadcast media. What this translates to, is that the success or otherwise of all these technologies can only be measured in terms of the extent to which they bring improvement on the accuracy, speed and transfer of message and redefine the concept of broadcasting to an enviable height. The use of new media technologies can only be said to be effective when the media professionals and audience benefit from the technologies through improved quality of programs. The problem still remains as to how to assess the extent to which the new media technologies have influenced the television 19 stations in Enugu–metropolis. How have the new media technologies enhanced productivity in terms of accuracy and news production in these stations? Are the public broadcast stations more abreast of the influence of the new media or the private broadcast station more aware of this influence? How have the new media technologies influenced the members of staff? How proficient are the members of staff in the use of these new media technologies? What are the challenges posed by these technologies to the members of staff? How do the stations acquaint their staff with the operations of new media technologies? Are these influences positive or negative? How have these technologies helped to overcome the barriers of time space and distance? What are the resultant effects of the total qualities of programs as a result of the use of new media technologies? This research is therefore set basically to answer this question; what influences have new media technologies played in broadcasting, with regard to NTA Enugu
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
In a broader perspective, this study aimed at determining New Media technologies and their challenges to broadcasting in Nigeria, but laconically:
1. To determine if the Nigerian broadcasting sector understands the new media technologies as a support to their operations.
2. To establish what should constitute new media technologies in the broadcast industry.
3. To determine the advantages which the new media technologies herald for the broadcast sector in Nigeria.
4. To determine how broadcast practitioners in Nigeria perceive these new media technologies and their compliance to their usage.
5. To find out some of those problems militating against the acceptance or acquisition of these new media technologies by broadcasting stations in Nigeria.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is significant in the following ways:
a. It would enable the researcher to expand the frontiers of research in digital broadcasting especially with the use of new media technologies.
b. It would enable the researcher to understand how media practitioners view the new media technologies as they affect their practices and operations in the broadcasting industry in Nigeria.
c. It would enable the researcher and other scholars to understand the level of acceptability, application and operation of the new media technologies in Nigeria.
d. It would enable media practitioners to know the full benefits which these new media technologies possess and how to utilize them for optimum services.
e. It would assist in the formulation of home-grown and functional ICT policy that will place the Nigerian broadcasting industry to world standards. f. It would avail the National Broadcasting Commission (NBC) with full information in its quest for the phasing out of analogue broadcasting equipment by the year 2012.
g. It would give direction on how to gradually transform from the present analogue state of broadcasting in Nigeria and embrace a broadcasting environment that is driven by modern Information and Communication Facilities as obtainable in western countries.
h. It would stimulate further research on Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and new media technologies as they affect the broadcasting or media industry in Nigeria.
i. It would add to the body of academic literatures on New Media and Information and Communication Technologies in Nigeria.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The following hypothesis will be tested in the course of this study;
H0: Information and Communication Technologies do not enhance the performance of mass media in Nigeria.
H1: Information and Communication Technologies enhance the performance of mass media in Nigeria.
H0: staffs of Nigeria Television Authority of Enugu state are not trained in the proper use of Information and Communication Technologies.
H2: staffs of Nigeria Television Authority of Enugu state are trained in the proper use of Information and Communication Technologies.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study revolves around Enugu; suffice it to state that in evaluating an assessment of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) on the performance of broadcast media in Nigeria, the dynamic scope has a national outlook and it will thus be universal to embark on the study. However, it becomes very necessary to narrow it down in relation to the assessment of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) on the performance of Enugu State Broadcasting Service (ESBS)
The researcher encounters some constraints which limited the scope of the study;
FINANCE: Due to the nature of office and business within the scope, the researcher spends a lot of money on visiting, traveling from one location to another, from one office to the other and even had to repeat a visit more than three times to seek for information, all these involves money considering the financial constraint of the researcher and limited resources available to her.
SOURCES OF INFORMATION: Many registered and non-registered staffs of Nigeria Television Authority of Enugu state were reluctant to give out or provide information about the research, since they believe that sources of information technology is something very confidential and therefore could not open up to the researcher.
INADEQUATE RECORD KEEPING: Some of the respondents visited were unable to present complete and comprehensive records of their business .while some were not keeping proper records of their business activities and as such could not give adequate and correct information on the effect of vat on their businesses rippling on the economy of Nigeria.
TIME: Time constraint has been another vital limitation and obstacle towards effective realization of the main objectives of this study. Time was really not on my side since I have to combine the little time left with my academic work and preparation.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
For a proper understanding of this work, key terms used are defined based on their conceptual relevance to this study.
Influence: According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (7th ed.). Influence is the effect that somebody or something has on the way a person thinks or behaves or on the way that something works or develops. It could be further said as the power that somebody or something has to make somebody or something behave in a particular way.
New Media: According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (7th ed.).New Media means new information and entertainment technologies, such as the Internet, CD-ROMs and Digital Television. On the other hand McQuail (2005:136) simply defines the “new media as a disparate set of communication technologies that shares certain features apart from being new made possible by digitalization and being widely available for personal use as communication devices.
Media Technologies: This refers to any special device or medium that helps in the procession, distribution, storage, display and reception of information.
Broadcast: This is the business of sending out radio and television signals over a distance, to a large heterogeneous audience by means of airwaves.
Broadcast Media: This is that electronic media or channel that uses the airwaves which enables signals and information to be transmitted to a large and diverse audience.
Convergence: According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (7th ed.).Convergence means to move towards a place from different direction and meet.
Digital: According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (7th ed.). Digital means using a system of receiving and sending information as a series of the 24 numbers, numbers one to zero, showing that an electronic signal is there or is not there.
Globalization: This means international integration. It can be describe as a process by which the people of the world are unified into a single society. This process is a combination of economic, technology, socio – cultural and political forces. www.wikipedia.org.
Internet: According to the wikipedia. org the internet also known as the “Net” or the “Web” can be easily understood as a “network of networks”.
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