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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents vi
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem 3
1.3 Objectives of the Study 3
1.4 Research Questions 4
1.5 Research Hypotheses 4
1.6 Significance of the study 5
1.7 Delimitation of the Study 5
1.8 Assumptions of the Study 6
1.9 Limitation of the Study 6
1.10 Operational Definition of terms 6
2.1 Sources of Literature 8
2.2 Review of Relevant Literature 8
2.3 Theoretical Framework 16
2.4 Summary of the Literature Review 19
3.1 Research Design 20
3.2 Area of the Study 20
3.3 Population of the Study 21
3.4 Research Sample and Sampling Technique 22
3.5 Instrument used for Data Collection 22
3.6 Validity of the Instrument 22
3.7 Method of Collecting Data 23
3.8 Method of Data Analysis 23
4.1 Date Analysis and Presentation 25
4.2 Hypotheses Testing 32
4.3 Discussion of Findings 35
5.1 Summary 39
5.2 Conclusion 40
6.3 Recommendations 41
6.4 Suggestion for further Studies 42
This study probes the impact which TV has on the cultural behaviour of idah polytechnic students. It specifically tackles the impact of channel O musical TV programes on the cultural behavior of idah polytechnic students. The research posits that the current trends in cultural behaviour of youths in Nigeria as observed among idah polytechnic students, kogi state is significantly associated with their perception of western culture and exposure to channel O musical TV programmes. The assumption that foreign media content has direct powerful effects that is shared by optimistic modernization theory. The research applies the theory of acculturation along with the culturation hypothesis. Acculturation of Nigeria youths take place as a result of exposure to western TV (channel O) which influence the perception of TV reality and alters self-image. From the review of related literature, the following hypotheses emerged for testing HI: More exposure to TV will tend to identification of western television stars as models. H2: The improvement of Local TV movies industries will increase Nigerian youths’ preference for local TV product. Research hypotheses 1 and 2 received statistical support from the analysis of collected data using the survey research method for proper analysis, descriptive and inferential statistical tools of measuring data were used in findings of the study, its shows that a positive relationship which means that as television explosive tends to go up, identification with western television stars especially American television stars also tends to go up. It is also confirm that students discard Nigerian norms and values and become manifestly consistently with western behavior in keeping with their perception of cultural values. From the conclusion, the researches of this research problem have shown that youths of Nigeria can confront the problem of channel O musical programmes destroying our cultural values. A policy should be formulated to ensure that only professionals take change of the business of films movies production. Recommendations to check the cultural genocide for further research were preferred.
1.1 Background of the study
This study is on Impacts Of Channel O Musical Television Programmes On The Cultural Behavioural Of Federal Polytechnic Students Idah. The term culture has been defined differently by different people. The different definitions attached to culture are based on the differences in the orientation of the people.
According to Ekeh (1989), culture is construct used in an attempt to analyze and integrate events and ideas in broad spectrum of areas of society. Jekayinka (2002), states that from wider perspective, culture includes the total repertoire of human action which are socially transmitted from generation to generation. Obiora (2002), says the transformation of culture is gradual and not sudden. He contends that culture is a continuous process of change. It changes exactly the same way as the human being change. It is dynamic, learned, acquired, transmitted or diffused through contact or means of communication flow from generation to another. The Nigerian culture is observed to be fading out as a result of the acceptance and adaptation of the modernist’s solution on to underdevelopment. One of such theories which relates to this subtle method of assault international communication is given by Lerner (1956).
In his concept of “empathy”, Lerner states that the inhabitants of third world nations must learn to empathize with the West for modern transformation of their societies to be possible. Schramm (1964), on the other hand, developed an interesting model in which he equates the level of social development of communication to various nations. Access to these modern mass media (Radio, Television, films, telephone, and
newspapers) is linked to individual modernity. Nigeria and other third world countries have reacted to these finding by inventing a substantial amount of their foreign exchange earnings to import radio and television transmitters and sets. The television programmes especially provide many powerful models for children and abundant opportunities for observational learning.
The television programmes include:
. Depiction of sex
. Drug and Alcohol used
. Vulgar Language – behaviours that most parents do not want their children to imitate.
Studies (www.encarta.com) have been found by early adolescence that the average Nigerian children have watched thousands of dramatized murders and countless other acts of violence on television. For many years, psychologists have debated the question of whether watching violence on Tv have detrimental effects on children. A number of experiments both inside and outside the laboratory have found evidence that viewing Tv violence is relayed to increased aggression in children.
Nigerians as exemplified by trends in Idah Polytechnic, Kogi State where Western exports of television entertainment and information are shown in NTA Idah, ESBS Television, Minaj Channel, Cartoon Network, ESPN –“Expanded Sports programmes Network” channel provided by various satellite transmission operators as DSTV, Multi – Choice, Music television, Euro – sports, etc, have raised Nigerians eyebrows to such Western television programmes. Such exposure make students to behave like them, associate with them and even speak like them. Even our generation that is shown on NTA Enugu and the youth perspective on
ESBS/TV are presented by youth and replete with music video of Western origin dominated by rape stars as (Late) Tupac, Nicky Minaj, The Game, 50- Cent, Sean Paul, Lil Wayne, Snoop Dogy Dog, etc. It is the researcher’s believe that channel O musical television especially American television exports have a strategic “weapon” aimed to over power the cultural values of Nigerian youths.
1.2 Statement of the research problem
Impact of channel O musical television programmes on the cultural behaviour of Idah Polytechnic students have been said to be a serious problem facing Nigerians. Some of these problems are:
. Inadequate policy to guard the youths towards Western Tv programmes.
. There is an erosion of the cultural values.
. The imitation of Western cultures especially the American cultures.
. The Nigerian youths are faced with brain wash.
Therefore, if the above problems are not been taking care off, it will lead to a total destruction of the Nigerians culture
1.3 Objectives of the study
The researcher’s objective is to conduct an in-depth research on the impacts of channel o musical television programmes on the cultural behaviour of federal polytechnic students idah with an insight to determine its implication to the cultural values of Nigerian youths are:
1. To show how the contents of channel O musical television programme affects Nigerian University students.
2. To examines its pervasive impact on the cultural behaviour of Nigerian University students.
3. To know how to isolate Western (channel O) television programmes from Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
The research question are question posed by the researcher, answers to which would lead to the solution of the problem. Research question are as well structured and constructed questions designed to guide the researcher in other to provide solution to the problem identified. For a researcher to achieve her aim, the following question should be used.
1. Do Nigerian youths expose themselves more to the contents of channel O Tv programmes than other media?
2. Do they prefer channel O musical Tv programmes to its impact on the cultural behavior of Nigeria University students?
3. Do Nigerian youths identify more with locally or foreign Tv stars as models?
4. Will improvement of local Tv/movies industries improve Nigerian youths preference for local Tv product?
H1: Research Hypotheses
1. Hi: More exposure to channel O Tv programmes lead to identification of Western Tv stars as models.
Ho: More exposure to channel O Tv programmes does not lead to identification of western Tv stars as models.
2. Hi: The improvement of local Tv /movies industries will
increase Nigerian youths preference for local Tv product.
Ho: The improvement of local Tv/ movies industries will not
increase Nigerian youths preference for local Tv product.
1.5 Significance Of The Study
1. The research will help in possible dilution, domination and finally absorption of the African/Nigerian culture which until the present has been characterized with good neighbourliness, respect for elders, virtuousness, community orientation and collectivism.
2. It will enable the government and policy makers to put adequate measures in place to check the movement of Western (channel o) television programmes into Nigeria.
3. It will help remove the idea of imitating Western cultures or ways of life from Nigeria.
4. The conduct of this research will enable the government to know what role the media can play in the development of a country and therefore, harness the mass media especially Tv in the democratic process and development process in general.
1.6 Delimitation Of The Study
The scope of this study is to find out how channel o musical Television Programmes affect the Cultural Behaviour of Nigerian Youth using Idah Polytecnic Students as a case study.
The institution is been noted for a constant influence of channel o musical television programs on their cultural behaviour. Hence, the need for choosing the institution as a case study commenced.
In the cause of the research, oral interview were consulted on both staffs and students of the institution. But the research depends more on the questionnaire which were distributed to students and staffs and were completed and returned. The researcher also consulted some textbooks, Newspapers and journals which provided a lot of information pertaining to the study.
1.7 Assumptions Of The Study
The following were the assumption of this study:
1. A greater number of Nigerian University Students watch Tv.
2. Channel o musical Tv programmes have a greater appeal to Nigerian University Students than locally produced programmes.
3. That the programmes contents of channel o Tv project symbiotic forms of social reality.
4. The western Tv is having a greater acculturation on Nigerian University Students in particular and on Nigerian youths in general.
5. That the improvement of local Tv/ movies industries will change Nigerian youths attitudes towards Western Tv programmes.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms.
1. Youth: It is defined as students in various universities in Nigeria and who fall between the ages of 15 -30
2. Media: The media is operationalised as Tv. Broadcast used to generate or circulate information to the public.
3. Cultural identify: It is those commonly shares socio-political interpretation and meanings related to the beliefs, norms, values, attitudes and behaviours within Nigeria.
4. Cultural dominance: it means the conscious and unconscious domination by Western (channel o) Tv media on the media system of Nigeria.
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