STRESS FACTORS AMONG MANAGEMENT EXECUTIVES IN SELECTED ORGANIZATIONS

STRESS FACTORS AMONG MANAGEMENT EXECUTIVES IN SELECTED ORGANIZATIONS

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ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to unravel stress factors among management executives in selected organization, in Oguta Local Government Area of Imo State and ways of curbing them. To achieve this, data was collected via questionnaire administered to twenty four (24) staffs in the Local Government which constituted the sample size. The study identifies harsh   disciplinary measures, inscriptive recruitment and reward distribution pattern excess workload, unhygienic working condition, inadequate working materials and poor ventilation as potential sources of stress among management staff in the offices. The study identified low moral, high level of absenteeism, alienation as well as low productivity among staff as the consequences of stress. The provision of training programs, effective delegation, recreation, time management, improved working condition as well as consultation among management staffs were found to be possible measures to checkmate stress. It was further suggested that the mistakes of management staff should be treated with a human face. Such should rather provide an opportunity to teach them. They should also be provided with necessary working materials.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the study

Without doubt, an important but very much neglected phenomenon which has continued to kill people these days in their prime age is work stress.

The use of the work “stress” has involved to denote various things over the years. In the seventeenth century, it was used to refer to hardship, straits, adversity or affliction, but in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, its uses had expanded to cover force, pressure, strain or strong effort. Though the word “stress” was originally used to refer to a person’s mental, physical or physiological conditions, the term was later used to refer to pressure or force on objects, especially in the study of physics and engineering.

Generally, people apply this term to individuals, small groups, large organizations or societies as well as physical structures. In reference to an individual, it is used variously to denote:

             i.            an excessive environmental force (e.g. too much work) which, by its actions on an individual, causes him harm,

           ii.            the harm thus causes fatigue and

          iii.            The individual’s reaction in such a situation (irritability, inability to concentrate.

Thus, stress may be defined as the unhealthy reaction of the individual to a variety of factors affecting him at any particular time. It refers to a very wide spectrum of problems which are differentiate from other problems areas because it deals with problems that tax the entire physiological, social and nervous nature. Individual habits and particular factors in his environment are either beneficial or harmful. The individual factors or sinks in this web formed by environmental factors and personal habits. The higher he floats healthier and happier he is. Conversely, the more he sinks the lower the quality of his physical and mental health.

                French, Rodgers and Cobb (1974), stress may be defined as a lack of fit between the needs and abilities of the individual on the one hand and the supplies or demands of the environment on the other.

                Mitchell (1983) says it is an adaptive response in reaction to external events or situations that place extreme psychological and physical demands on the individual. Stress initially causes arousal, the resistance and finally exhantion.

                However, it should be remembered that each individual is unique. Hence, different individuals would not respond in the same way to the effects of the same personal habits and environmental factors, in other words, the degree of harm or benefit. From the same personal habits or environmental factors will vary from individual to individual. Put in another way, the amount of stress experienced by individuals under a particular set of personal and environmental factors will vary according to individual genetic constitution or heredity.

                We must hasten to add that stress is not always unpleasant, harmful and negative. According to Gmelch (1988), stress can sometimes be positive. Besides danger, it also signals opportunity, it encompasses both “distress” (i.e. bad and unpleasant events).

                The Arthritis foundation (1986) argues that stress is a normal part of life. It is therefore enormous to take it to refer to mental ill-health. Rather as cooper and Marshall (975:27) say, it is psychological impaired who are generally referred to as stressed, while the term contains implicit assumptions both the condition is likely to be temporary and also, that although there may well be personality dispositions involved, environmental factors play a substantial causative role.

                This study has therefore set to unravel factors of stress among management Executive worker in selected organization; Oguta Local Government Area of Imo state and ways of curbing them.   

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

                Stress is generally believed to be an integral of human existence. All human institutions are prone and susceptible to varied forms of stress. The general notion of stress however is that it has a devastating effect.

                In recent time, management executives in organizations are fingered as being havens of stress. Such arguments and propositions also attempt to apportion more stress to certain work role more than others.

                Management executives in selected organizations have at one time or the other cried out to express their disenhancement and disillusionment over stressful variables that impinge on them in the course of discharging their duties.

                This work has therefore set to identify the factors of stress among management executives in selected organizations and ways of curbing them using Oguta Local Government Area of Imo State as the case study.

Purpose of the study

                The general object of this study is to identify factors of stress among management executives in selected organization and way of curbing them. This research therefore has the following specific objectives.

1.          To identify the factors of stress that affect management staff in selected organization; Oguta Local Government Area.

2.          To examine the implications of stress on the overall productivity of management staffs in selected organization; Oguta Local Government Area.

3.          To make recommendation on how to checkmate such stress precipitating variables.

Research questions

                The research is guided by the following questions:

1.           What are the factors of stress that affect management staffs in selected organization; Oguta Local Government Area of Imo State?

2.           What are the implications of stress on the overall productivity of management staffs in selected organization; Oguta Local Government Area of Imo State?

3.           What measures can be used to checkmate stress among measures management executives Oguta Local Government Area of Imo State?

Significance of the study     

This research has practical and academic significance.

On practical significance, this study will provide on the factual information to the general public on the factors that engender stress among management staffs in Oguta Local Government Area of Imo State.

                Secondly, it will bring limelight the implications of stress on overall performance of management staffs in Oguta Local Government Area of Imo State.

                Thirdly, information gained from this study will provide management executives and other among their forms of organizations on how to curb stress among their staffs.

In the case of academic significant, work will serve as an addendum to already existing literature on stress.

Scope of the study

        This research study covers factors of stress among management staffs in Oguta Local Government Area of Imo state and ways of curbing them.


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