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1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The practice of Human Resource Management in its quest towards achieving success through people utilizes array of activities concerned with all aspects of how people are employed and managed in organizations. This approach tends to understand how psychological and social processes interacts with the work situation to influence performance. Human Relations is the first major approach to emphasis information work relationship and work satisfaction. Thus, Ezinwa and Agomon (1993) asserted that human relations encompasses the art and practice of using systematic knowledge of human behaviour to achieve organization and personal objectives. Organizations are made up of individuals, the immediate environment and the public that contributes to the success or failure of the organization.
Onasanya (1990) in similar vain believes that human relations, being a behavoural science which deals with inter-personal, inter-work group and management of employees relationship in a social system seems to be the only tool for organizational productivity and development. The reason is not far fetched since efforts of Elton Mayo and his research colleagues in the 1920s on behavioural approach to management succeeded to have yielded much more factual analysis in terms of the chicken-egg relationship between human relations and productivity in an organization.
Hicks and Byers (1982) in their contributions defined human relations as “the integration of people into a work situation in a way that motivates them to work together, productively and cooperatively with economic, psychological and social satisfaction”. This further confirms that paying attention to the human elements enhances greater productivity and performance.
Human relations is a definitive management function which helps to establish and maintain mutual line of communication, understanding, acceptance and cooperation between an organization and its human. It involves the management to keep opinions, defines, and as well emphasizes the responsibility of management to serve the human interest.
However, human relations has long attained professional status but it has been discovered that most organizations are not taking full advantage of its efficient utilization when dealing with their publics due to ignorance or improper understanding as to the effectiveness of the discipline to organizational success. Thus effect the need for this study in order to highlight the effect of human relations practice on organizational productivity.
1.2. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
Inspite of the glaring importance of human relations in the realization of organizational goals, one still hears complaint of poor performance of both employees and employers in the organization even till this day. Beside, employees can resign from their appointments as a result of executive’s harshness and autocracy, employees having their appointment terminated due to poor performance or failure to perform, the organization may fold up because of low productivity, poor employees and employers relationship, inability to meet the organization’s set targets or mismanagement.
It is as a result of these trends that make it necessary for this study to address the following questions:
How effective is the practice of Human Relations system to the attainment of organizational goals?
Does Human Relations has any impact on worker’s performance?
Does Human Relations determine employees retention in the organization?
1.3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study is intended to:
- Find out the effects of human relations’ practice towards the achievement of organizational goals.
- Examine whether human relations has an impact on worker’s performance.
- Establish whether human relations is determinant of employees retention in the organization.
1.4. STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHESIS
The following hypothesis are formulated for this study:
H0: Human Relations does not have effect on workers’ productivity.
H1: Human Relations have effect on workers’ productivity.
1.6. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
In view of the constant struggle by the organizations to balance both the employee’s needs and the organizational needs for the effective actualization of set goals, it is expected that the study would be of good benefits to executives, managers, future business establishment and future researchers. Similarly, the study will help organizations to improve on implementing human relations policies so as to enable them control problems facing them from such angle.
Infact, it will serve as eye-opener to most organizations who are yet to embrace the system, thereby enlighten workers (industrial and groups) about the concept of human relations and the effect on productivity. It is hoped that the study would also help executives to improve on the need for good human relations with workers and clients to improve the organization’s performance.
In addition, the adoption of this new approach to firm’s advancement will improve employees performance, productivity, efficiency as well as employees attitude to work.
Furthermore, the study will also be of help to those who may want to research into the area by serving as a reference material for future investigation.
1.7. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study centres on the effect of Human Relations on organizational productivity using Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research, Kaduna as a case study. The study covers sizeable staff of the institute drawn from the various cadre of management (form top management to subordinates) in order to ensure a more comprehensive and detail examination. The staff includes both the male and female sex of different ages and level of service.
1.8. LIMITAITONS OF THE STUDY
The following problems affect the effective conduct of this study:
Time: Although the time for the study is quite long, but academic demand such as preparation for tests, assignments and paper presentations took a lot of time for one to go out and source for information.
Financial Constraint: This was another limitation which made it uneasy for the materials to be easily assessed at the appropriate time.
Bureaucratic Bottle-Neck: In addition, stringent rules and regulations guiding the release of information in the institute (NITR) made it almost impossible for one to obtained details about the organization.
1.9. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE CASE STUDY
Establishment of Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research (NITR)
Prior to 1945, the trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) situation in West Africa became alarming. In the 1930s, average of 100,000 cases was diagnosed yearly. The British Government then found it necessary to send a high powered scientific delegation to examine the magnitude of problem and make recommendations on what actions to take for effective control of the disease in man and animals (Nagoma). This resulted to the establishment of a regional research organization. The West African Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research to serve the needs of four British colonies namely, Nigeria, Gold Coast (Ghana), Sierra – Leon, and the Gambia. This organization had the responsibility to research on all aspects of trypanosomiasis (human and animals) and entomology.
The British Government bore two-thirds of the cost of running this regional research scheme while the colonies contributed one third. A Director was appointed to assume duty in 1947 in Nigeria because it was the largest of the four colonies and it provided a much wider variety of conditions connected with tsetsefly and trypanosomiasis. Vom (Plateau State) and Kaduna State were selected for locations of laboratories, with Kaduna as the Headquarters. The decision was influenced by climatic, case of communication and disease conditions in both areas.
The West African Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research (WAITR) was officially commissioned in 1951 in Kaduna. By the time it was realized that trypanosomiasis not only caused a high mortality in humans but also of great economic implication in terms of large annual losses among domestic animals. Vast areas of West Africa could not be used to rear cattle because of the presence of tse-tse flies which caused the disease in human and animals. Consequently the farmer was denied the use of animals for work and transport, and deprived of manure for his field, while the diet of the population, both urban and rural remained deficient in protein and milk.
However, with the attainment of independence, the inter-territorial research organization (WAITR) crumbled under political pressure. The other countries later withdrew and the then Federal Government of Nigeria had to assume the full responsibility of the institute. The name was therefore changed to the Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research (NITR) in 1964. In 1975, research into all aspects of Onchocerciasis (river-blindness) was added into the mandate of NITR. Thus, the Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research (NITS) has the responsibility to research into all aspects of human and animal trypanomiasis and human Onchocerciasis (river-blindness) in all the thirty states of the federation including Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria.
The headquarters is still located in Kaduna with Vom (Plateau State) as a major branch. From these locations, work is extended to all states in the federation.
MANDATE OF THE INSTITUTE
The specific mandate given to the institute is to conduct research into:
- The Pathology, immunology and methods of treatment of the two diseases (trypanomiasis and onchocerciasis).
- The ecology and life cycle of the vectors and the mode of transmission of the diseases.
- The socio-economic effects of the diseases on the rural population and;
- Any other matter related to the diseases.
RESEARCH FOCUS OF (NITR) INSTITUTE
NITR undertakes research on all aspects of human and animal trypanosomiasis as well as onchocerciasis. A three-prone control strategy is adopted by Nigeria. Vector, trypanocidal/filaricidal and integrated control measures. Research goals are consequently formulated against the background of these methods. The institutes current focus includes:
- Developing low cost techniques for vector control that can be sustained by the local people with a minimum of inputs of materials and expertise.
- Breeding tsetseflies and blackflies on a large scale in the laboratory for research work.
- Developing and in some cases adopting simple, sensitive and accurate methods of detecting trypanosomes in infected tsetsefly and mammal including man.
- Ascertaining risk level of the disease in the different ecological zones. Sampling programmes are organized to evaluate the level or risks of the diseases of domestic livestock and human being.
- Distinguishing parasite species and determining anti-genetically distinct populations.
- Cryopreservation ad cloning of tryposomes
- Improving methods of surveillance. Surveys are carried out to obtain current information on the distribution of trypanosomiasis and onchocerciasis. These, combined with their vector surveys, enable control operation to be planned.
- Assessing the mechanism of the pathological and biological damages in various organs of the mammalian body and their mechanism.
- Involving rural communities in tsetsefly control strategies
- Assessing the cost-benefit of the various control strategies applicable in a given area.
ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE INSTITUTE IN TRYPANOSOMIASIS
Eleven types of tse-tse flies occupies approximately 80% (737, 338 sqkm) of Nigeria’s land area have been identified by NITR and a distribution map prepared. The knowledge of tsetse fly distribution in any particular part of the country.
Spot surveys and Tsetse Fly Sampling: Several surveys on human and animal trypanosomiasis have been undertaken in Gongola, Plateau, Bauchi, Benue, Benin, Anambra, Oyo, Kaduna, Niger, Ondo, Cross-River, Katsina, Kwara and Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. Tse tse fly sampling has provided considerable data on:
- The ecology, behaviour, population, structure and dynamics of the flies.
- The nature and rates of trypanosome infections
- Trapping Technology: NITR has developed an effective technology called NITSC trap which can be used in village communities and farms against tsetse fly challenge.
- Attractant: A pheromone which induces sex response from the male tsetse-flies was isolated from the cuticles of the female tsetse-flies by NITR. This may be of immense practical value in the trial control strategy.
- Integrated Control: In an effort to develop a comprehensive integrated control management programme against tsetseflies natural pathogens causing death of the vectors have been identified. Some of these pathogens include syntomosphyrum species, Bacillus thriigrensis and microsphoridians living in simillum larva.
- Infertility and Abortion: It has been shown in NITR laboratories that trypanosomiasis causes infertility and abortions in man and animals.
- Use of Insecticides: Fourteen compounds and formulations were tested for their potentials in tsetsefly control. Pyrethroid insecticides (dettamethrin and permenthrin) were found to be very toxic to tsetseflies while increased tolerance to chlorinated hydrocarbons and organophosphoras insecticides was observed.
- Drug Trials for Treatment: Studies showed that combination of ethidium and tuberculin has a good potential for the treatment of T. gambiense in mice. Also a combination of treatment of T Simias infections in pigs.
It was observed that prophylactic treatment with insometamidium chloride eliminated T. Vivax from the feeding of tsetsefly irrespective of whether the infection was the mature or developing.
It was observed that administration of diamidines and pohennanthridines increased parasite concentration in ‘T’. Congolense infected animals, due to vaso-construction of the capillary endothelium. Flushing the tryposomes from the micro circulation would indicate that the amidines/phenanthridines have high potential in the chemotherapy of trypanosomiasis due to ‘T’. Congolense.
- Onchocherciasis: Surveys undertaken by NITR have shown that black-flies, the vector of this disease are widely distributed and occur in every state in Nigeria. Surveys by NITR have further shown that forest and Savannah cyto species of these flies are now known to occur in Nigeria.
RELEVANCE OF THE INSTITUTE TO NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Because trypanosomiasis affects both man and animals, and especially between the ages of 15-50, it is of great economic implication to Nigeria; it depicts the nation’s agricultural manpower and constitutes one of the main causes of rural-urban drift.
Yearly losses in domestic animal production, (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, horses and camel) due to trypanosomiasis are estimated at about N10m in 2004.
This disease occur mainly among rural dwellers on whom the nation solely depends on, for food and animal are often abandoned in search of relief elsewhere. This disrupts the socio-economic life of our rural populations. By the extent of distribution of the tsetseflies, it would seem that almost all persons and domestic animals especially in the rural areas of every state and vegetation zones in Nigeria are exposed to possible tsetsefly challenge.
This disease, commonly known as river-blindness affects between ages 20-40 in society (in Nigeria an estimated 8.6 – in case of blindness is reported and Onchocerciasis is a major contributing factor. The diseases is therefore capable of halting the economic life of the communities it affects. Fear of the disease has forced people to abandon fertile agricultural land near rivers as observed in recent times, for example, in Saminaka Local Government Area of Kaduna State in Nigeria.
1.10. DEFINITION OF TERMS
Organization: The interaction of two or more people within some mutually recognized power relationship for some common purpose, be it formal or informal.
Productivity: A measure of how efficiently resources are used as input to bring output in goods and services with minimum time cost.
Employee: A person engaged in an employment under appointment and receives a reward in return for services rendered.
Group: A collection of individuals who share a sense of common identity contributing towards the achievement of a common goal.
Human Relations: A behavioural management approach that attempt to understand and explain how psychological and social process interacts with formal aspect of the work situation to influence performance.
Consultation: A planned effort of effective enquiry which seeks to establish improved understanding between both management and employees.
Conflict: A state of disagreement between individuals or group against another person or organization which resulted from a clash of interest.
Values: These are believes in what is best or good for the organization and what should or ought to happen.
Grapevine: Unofficial means of leaking confidential information to achieve favour from people in organization.
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