MOTIVATION AS A TOOL FOR PRODUCTIVITY MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA

MOTIVATION AS A TOOL FOR PRODUCTIVITY MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA

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1.0     Introduction

1.1     Background of the Study

Recently, managers and management researchers have long believed that the objectives of the organization are achieved without the continued commitment of the members of the organization. Workforce remains the most seriouschattels of any organization dynamic and it is the human constituent that gives the direction and leadership of the organization (Onyishi, 2010).

In fact, any organization can develop in the measure made ​​possible by the voluntary and creative application of the skills and competencies of its employees. It is for this purpose that the means of study and ways to motivate staff to optimal organizational performance is more or less remained a cardinal concern of the management since the birth of industrial civilization ( Umoh 2011).

The importance of the human being in any organization can not be overstated. Without them, it will be virtually impossible to achieve the objective of the business of any organization. Even the most technologically sophisticated organization still needs human beings to operate the machines and make important management decisions. For this reason, it is important to consider how to get them to do their work voluntarily and be satisfied with their job (the job satisfaction)(Pinder2013). Pinder further asserted that before a worker is satisfied with his work, needs and aspirations must be identified by the direction so that the right solution will be provided for this. Human problems occur because it has a lot of responsibility not only to himself but other fellows and interaction with the environment make him act or react in a particular way to the needs and maintenance of the social system(Pinder2013). The concept of motivation simply tries to examine why humans act in a particular way and in a certain period of time(Luthans2014).

Motivation is defined differently by different authors. According to Koontz and O'Donnell (2010, p.334), motivation is defined as a way to encourage people to act in a desired manner. Also Pinder (2013: 24) defines motivation as the force by a person who affects its direction, intensity and persistence of voluntary behavior.The major problem of motivation is how to bring a group of people, each with a set distinct needs and a unique personality to work together to achieve the organization's objectives(Koontz2010). Koontz said the ability to understand why people behave as they do and the ability to get them to behave in a desired manner specified are two inter related qualities that are very important to the effectiveness of management.

Luthans (2014: 8) postulates that motivation is the process that creates, feeds, guides and supports behavior and performance. In other words, it is the process of stimulating people to act, being engaged in achieving a desired goal, a way to do this is to use the technique of proper motivation which makes them more satisfied workers and engaged in their work. Most worrying of the employer is to make the employees to put in best to the attainment of organizational objectives, but they must know that if employees are not satisfied with the management of the organization; there will be a very low output of the organization. Therefore, Hekina and Jones, (2012) believed that employees should be considered and valued as assets of the distribution of resources of the organization. This study is fascinated about examining the various motivational tools used by management to increase productivity.

However, according to Hekina, (2012) the liquidation of many organizations has been attributed to many factors; including the low worker productivity was central importance. Some of the companies that survived well below its optimum level and much research have been conducted in the past by seeking to understand the main factor responsible for this problem. Many organizations have faced countless problems due to the low productivity that made their fleets to reduce to a very low level. Companies witnesses massive layoffs due to a lack of performance. Job security issues in organizations have many employees working with anxiety affecting their productivity (Hekina,2012).

Because of the strategic importance of the some company by relieving the need to organization the masses, this study is set to the value of the impact of motivation as a management tool to increase worker productivity. Given the fundamental problem facing organizations, the study aims to assess the motivational techniques that have been made by the management of some organizations to improve worker productivity. The study also tend to look for other motivational factors that are not currently used by the management of some organization, if judiciously implementation will improve the morale of workers to higher productivity, it solving the current low productivity currently present in the organization and thus enable most organizations to achieve the noble goal of the government to alleviate the some problems of the masses of the state.

Management of organizations as well as companies is however the function that coordinates the efforts of people to accomplish set goals and realistic objectives using available assets resourcefully. Management includes planning, organizing, staffing, driving or coordinating and controlling an association accomplish the goal or target. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and management of human resources, monetary resources, technological resources, and natural resources. Management is likewise a scholastic teach, a sociology which points to study social organization.

In view of today`s era, 21st century, one of the best difficulties of any association is to guarantee their manageability for a more drawn out duration of time in the dynamic business environment.  Thus, the retention of employee has become of supreme importance also, a basic issue for an association as there is broad evidence regardless the organization facing retention challenges in today aggressive labor market during the extreme economic downturn. The success and failure of each association relies on upon the nature of individuals found in the organization.

Amid the most recent couple of decades a great deal of exploration has been done to discover the elements included which can guarantee their long time achievement in this aggressive business field. The greater part of the specialists are worried about human resources management, especially in employee retention, which guarantees the best hands improved sales, customer satisfaction and can maintain balanced rapport between employee and management to produce overall growth of the organization.

However, regarding today’s business world, retaining valuable employees is one of the most critical issues facing the leaders (Mayfield & Mayfield, 2008: 41) talented employees who have skills that are essential for survival of an organization are difficult to remember, because they often give more importance to their own career path of loyalty to the organization, which, in turn, can result in voluntary turnover rate (De Vos, Meganck, 2009: 45-46).  Philanthropic Van Dam (2008: 560), careers have become increasingly the lower limits and self-managed through an environment that easily provides long term jobs Premium income. Turnover happens when there is a final withdrawal of an employee of the organization that employs him (George & Jones, 2005: 90). Employers and employees experiencing turnover as an expensive process due the employer, it is high and the replacement cost of the organization, while the monetary cost and psychological experiences employed (Huang, Lin & Chuang, and 2006: 492). The high turnover implications are the recruitment, selection and training increased costs and disruption to the smooth running of the organization when the competent and effective employees leave the organization (Robbins, Odendaal and Roodt, and 2004: 16). Research by Mayfield and Mayfield (2008: 41) showed that when considering the price of the charge reassigned to work, organizational memory lost, and recruiting and training successor, figure the cost of medium business can go beyond 1.5 times an annual salary of employee "Adding to the cost, Gostick and Elton (2007: 13) indicates that the labor market is still decimated by revenue, since many employees mentally follow their colleagues from Taylor, Murphy together with Price (2006: 646) style the loss of employees as a disruptive event and emphasize that the additional cost of human resources can be significantly reduced through improved employee retention . However, George and Jones (2005: 91) argue that organizations can also benefit from sales in certain situations, such as when the students leave and bad performers are or where new recruits are reflected in the introduction of new ideas and approaches. According to Mobley 's model of the process of turnover (George & Jones, 2005: 90), the entire rotation process is triggered by a lack of job satisfaction; therefore, employees who are satisfied with their jobs may never even think about quitting, while those dissatisfied will, as a result of this discontent, start thinking about quitting. 

Some research reveal that the turnover rate has increased alarmingly in the past decade to 1.3% per month Ramlall (2004) and even, when the unemployment rate was high, over 86% employers were facing difficult challenges in attracting employees and another 58% of the sector failed to retain employees by Hale (1998 cited in Ramlall, 2004)

People who are motivated exert more effort to realize satisfaction than those who are not motivated (Fox, 2006: 59). Motivation is defined by Robbins et al. (2004: 131) as the procedures that symbolize the greatness, direction and persistence of an individual effort to achieve a set goal." Giving Clark (2009: 43), people are enthused for their own reasons. George and Jones (2005: 175) maintain that the forte of the people "of motivations, which are directed towards the objectives (often called incentives), affects the motivation of people. People join organizations to meet certain needs, and as long as the requirements are satisfied in relation to the applied force, they will remain full members of an organization (Amos, Ristow&Ristow, and 2004: 150). Therefore, it could be argued that people working can often be successfully motivated by offering them an environment in which appropriate objectives are available to meet their needs (Fox, 2006: 59). Even so, we must consider the fact that employees have different needs and it is necessary to spend time with employees to understand these needs (Robbins et al., 2004: 165).

The management factors have a high correlation with employee retention. Reward management is the term related to factors that can satisfy and inspire staff to deploy to an organization to achieve the purpose of the organization, building trust and be committed to the organization, which may encourage them to maintain long-term in the organization. Most organizations in the private and public sectors rely on the maintenance of employment by the reward system that has been ongoing research for a long time. Recently, research has found that employee retention is enhanced by the compensation and reward system, Rashid and Zhao (2009).

1.2     Statement of Problems

In a work place specificstaffs have unlike goals and aspirations, for example, some prefer to work very hard and yet be satisfied at least to work hard; some employees could be targets while contributing to employment, others might have goals to show the appearance in the office and would not want to be usefully engaged; some still prefer to work for a short period when their purpose is to reduce the time they spend on the workplace to a minimum.

In most organization, lack of motivation problem resulted in many problems resulting from the declining fortunes of the organization. In some cases, workers are laid off for a single offense other lighter sanctions have been used. This resulted in the uncertainty of workers' job security. Workers' wages had been held for months who had actually affected the morale of workers for high performance. The apparent lack of interest in the management of the welfare of staff and attractive benefits dampened the morale of workers and can be attributed to the continuing problems in any organization that did most organization very far from achieving the objective of the business.

The organizations emphasize the importance of understanding and applying various techniques of appropriate motivation in designing and creating an environment for peak performance in productivity.

This research problem is how motivation can bring increased productivity in an organization on the basis of the facts I found out, I will make references for the problems.

Many organizations are apparently unaware of the benefits of motivating their employees, making their performance is very poor and the problems here are:

·        Organizations See motivate their staff as something not too important because they value employees in their organization;

·        The organizations lack an environment conducive to job performance, lack of incentives, tribalism and feelings, bureaucracy and quota systems helps contribute to lowly performance in an institute.

·        Organizations see the motivation of their employees as a waste of time and money and while some are trained, some of them are adamant to change.

Also, early in the management of establishments has at all times been faced with the problem of how to motivate workers to perform better in order to increase productivity. Even until now, the problem persists in most organizations.

Therefore, the problems of this study are:

·        Is cash or monetary incentives encouraging workers to perform well on their task?

·        Fragment of the workercan not be gratified with the reward system like this was established by management therefore, management can ignore the real incentives that inspire employee.

·        Cash alone is not the solitaryinspiring force that incites to their optimum best, there are other forms of this reward: praise the progress of work, more responsibility and promotion.

Pulling in, keeping up, creating and holding quality workforce remains the best test of any association particularly in this period of globalization. Mobility of labor and staff turnover in organizations have soared over the last decade .Replacement of staff/labour force occasioned by staff exit from the organization has cost organizations so much  to recruit new staff and train them. This has remained a major problem for every organization, above all initiating and sustaining the best reward management systems to enhance staff retention has equally not been easy for employers of labor. These issues have paved way for this research work.

However, chew and Chan (2008: 503) show that managers face two major organizational problems along, namely raise employee engagement and retention. If employees are committed to an organization, they are less likely to quit or be absent and can also display other behaviors that are valuable to the organization (Maurer &Lippstreu , 2008: 329 ) . Kaye and Jordan- Evans (2005: 15) suggest that managers should quit think about what it is that keeps their stars home and happy - managers should not assume all employees want the same thing as compensation or promotion. In today’s highly competitive environment, it is essential to maximize the commitment of the team, motivation, attendance and retention (Glen, 2006: 37).

For the information management service to support optimal enterprises, they must:

1.     maintain existing talent of people who have the knowledge , expertise and skills

2.     Create more attractive working environment for current and future job seekers.

It is however clear that a crucial factor in the survival and success of any organization is the retention of the talented people who have the knowledge, expertise and skills.

1.3     Objectives of the Study

The broad objective of this research is to appraisalmotivation as a tool for productivity management in Nigeria. Meanwhile, additional objectives of this research will include:

Ø To examine the motivational techniques applied by the management to enhance the productivity of employees.

Ø To know the impact of motivation on workers’ productivity

Ø To find out how the currentcondition can be enhanced.

Ø To ascertain the levl of the impact of the motivational strategies used on workers’ productivity in some organization

Ø To put forward ways and make suitable recommendation on increased workers’ productivity in private and public sectors

1.4     Research question

Ø To what extents is motivation beneficial to the organizational productivities?

·        What are the impacts of the motivational techniques on employees’ performance?

Ø How often does an organization embark on staff training and development?

·        What are the factors affecting productivity in Nigeria

Ø Are there differences in the ways staff and workers are treated in the organization?

1.5     Statement of Hypothesis

The research hypotheses are as follows:

Ho:    The more there is effective motivation, the less moral of the employees.

Hi:     The more there is effective motivation, the more moral of the employee

Hypothesis 2

Ho: Adoption of motivation methods will robotically decrease the workers’ productivity.

Hi: Adoption of motivation methods will robotically increase the workers’ productivity.

1.6     Significance of the Study

The significance of the research cannot be extravagant. It will be based on the examination of motivation practices in Nigerian organizations namely the extent to which it is being implemented, the effect on its workers. The study is significantly important for the following sectors:

·        Management experts and decision-makers: It would allow management experts and decision makers in the growth and enactment of interior policies; it will benefit from the management and staff and stakeholders. Through this study, managers will be informed of the different motivational factors that are useful for improved work performance by employees:

·        Future researchers : It will help future researchers to know about motivation strategies in an organization and changes that could be made better ; and also to allow the scholar have methodicalnotion of how motivation can improve productivity in most organizations.

·        Staff: The staff stands to benefit by them taking the opportunity for self- motivation and performance at work.

·        The government: why are beneficial for the government in its policy formulation and revision of laws, regulations and bye laws to achieve maximum efficiency and productivity. Some organizations are interested in improving work performance of employees as a means of improving profitability. Thus, it would reach growth through improved motivator’s worker efficiency.

1.7     Scope of the Study

This study will focus on motivation as a productivity management tool in Nigeria

The study will seek to cover the following areas.

·        Identify the research problem.

·        Review the literature to understand the conceptual and theoretical foundations of the study, motivation as a management tool to increase worker productivity.

·        Design tool for data collection.

·        Administration of the tool and data collection process

·        Analyze the data collected.

·        Make a proposal for further study.

1.8     Limitation of the Study

Some limitations that have been identified and met in the process of the study include:

·        Financial constraints: to run to gather materials for this study, given the economic crisis, money and other resources were involved which tardy the achievement of this work.

·        Defiance of respondents, the researcher found difficult first obtains the information required by the staff. It has also delayed the completion of this work.

·        Time and effort: the researcher has been limited by the time and effort to turn to the realization of this project running.

·        Electricity: the researcher had a difficult time in typing, proofreading, editing and printing of this work because of the constant input and power interruption by the limited power farms

1.9     Definition of Important Terms

There are certainirreplaceable and problematic words used in this work, though, they are sagaciously explained for a better understanding of their meaning and the context in which they are applied.

Motivation: This is simply act to ensure appropriate behavior of employees in an organization by providing an environment where people can meet their human needs in both their work and their work environment. Motivations can be informed of the promotion, bonus, performance evaluation, salary increase, the provision of benefits, etc.Huczynski and Buchanan (2009) defines motivation as a process of decision making by which the individual chooses wish comes out and set in motion the appropriate behavior to their acquisition.

Management: This is the coordination of material and human resources in an organization to achieve management goals. Umoh (2011) defined management as a process whereby people through systematic cooperative human effort through. It is also the process of doing things with other people to achieve an overall goal.

Tool: This simple mean any element or object used to achieve a goal in an organization. It is also an instrument or a measure used by management to achieve the goals of an organizatio


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