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1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
For age long decades, travelling has always been a part of man. People travel for various reasons ranging from commerce, education, pleasure, relaxation, exploration, events and even for the fun of it. Travelling for various purposes is associated with man (Walker and Walker, 2011:14). Travelling dates back to the existence of man (Ashamu, 2007:19). He added that it was in the course of travelling, tourism was discovered. Right from the prehistoric period to the Neolithic age precisely between 4000 and 5000 B.C, individuals travelled for the purpose of their safety and to fend for their needs.
One of the factors that contribute to the social and economic development of a nation is having a dependable and efficient transportation system. Storey (1969) and Dawson and Barwell (1993) assert that transportation enhances the regional development of a country, though it has a positive, negative and neutral effect on an economy. In the positive light, it triggers rapid development, in the negative it leads to migration, easy spread of diseases and while in the neutral, are cases where transport facilities do not contribute to productivity at all. Transportation helps in the wealth creation of an economy, even as it helps bring investors who will utilize the available resources of the nation; it equally helps in the exportation of goods and services. Transportation contributes in improving the standard of living of people because it helps to generate income for those who are into it and the residents of areas where this transport companies are situated (Lucas,1998).
Tourism cannot be fully achieved without transportation, as it is what drives tourism. Tourism and transportation are used interchangeably by people, but it is pertinent to know that there are two different things; as all tourists are travelers but not all travelers are tourists (Chadwick, 1994:65).
Road transportation is a very common means of transportation among Nigerians. Most Nigerians prefer traveling by road not because it is the safest, but tends to be the cheapest after water transportation. Bearing in mind that transportation and tourism are both linked together, road transport seems to be the best as it has support services that promote tourism like fuel stations, auto mechanics and even rest facilities (Culpan 1987, 547). Currently in Nigeria, there are many road transport companies competing for travelers; the competition is really much as we now have road transport companies going the extra mile to offer great services to their passengers in other to stay on top of the competition. These days we have cars with car conditioners, price reduction for families travelling with infants, etc.
However, the travel and tourism sector of Nigeria have been growing in limbs and bounds recently. Based on a report from the World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC), this sector has greatly increased the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Nigeria in the past few years. Furthermore, not minding the current recession, the travel and tourism industry is contributing to help revive the economy. Due to this, the government has embarked on measures to help sustain this industry and use it as a tool to achieve its 2020 vision (Jetlife 2012:7). Though the major challenge of Nigerian roads being in deplorable state still poses a challenge, and that is why this study aims at examining the impact of transportation in the tourism industry.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The deplorable state of Nigeria roads keeps posing a challenge on the success of tourism in Nigeria. Many tourists are discouraged due to the bad states of our roads. Some on imaging the risks of traveling on bad roads coupled with the after-effect of it on after such trips feel discouraged. Due to this, investors are discouraged from visiting tourist sites in Nigeria.
In addition, poor management of our transport system contributes to the problem of transportation in the tourism industry. The road transport companies of Nigeria have limitations ranging from employment of incompetent drivers, continued usage of worn out vehicles with worn out parts and poor services when it comes to the treatment of passengers. Also, problem of inconsistent transport fares; it is a known fact that there is no agency that controls the rate of transport fare in Nigeria. As a result of this, transport companies fix fares indiscriminately, whether in the face of fuel scarcity or not.
All these culminate to negatively affect the tourism industry of Nigeria and this study aims at examining the impact of transportation in the tourism industry.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main aim of the research work is to examine the impact of transportation on tourism in Nigeria; other specific objectives of the study are stated below as follows:
1. To examine the relationship between transportation and tourism development in Nigeria
2. To determine the effect of transportation on the rate of patronage in most tourist centers in Nigeria
3. To investigate the factors affecting the ease of transportation and the growth of tourism in Nigeria
4. To examine the roles of management in transportation efficiency in young shall grow motors
5. To examine the effect bad road on transportation in Nigeria
6. To proffer solution to the above problem
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The study came up with the following research question in order to ascertain the above stated objectives; the research questions are stated below as follows:
1. Is there any relationship between transportation and tourism development in Nigeria?
2. What is the effect of transportation on the rate of patronage in most tourist centers in Nigeria?
3. What are the factors affecting the ease of transportation and the growth of tourism in Nigeria?
4. What are the roles of management in transportation efficiency in young shall grow motors?
5. What is the effect bad road on transportation in Nigeria?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: there is no mean difference in the responses of the respondents based on the level of experience that effective management helps improve transportation efficiency in young shall grow motors
H1: there is mean difference in the responses of the respondents based on the level of experience that effective management helps improve transportation efficiency in young shall grow motors
H0: There is no significant relationship between transportation and tourism development in Nigeria.
H1: There is significant relationship between transportation and tourism development in Nigeria.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is meant to inform, educate, sensitize and enlighten the general public, government and road transport company owners on the impact of transportation in the tourism industry.
This study aims at reminding the government-both state and federal of the ever-poor state of our roads and the need to look into putting them in good shapes.
Road transport companies like ‘The Young Shall Grow Motors” needs to review their services in other not to lose customers to their competitors and to equally promote tourism in Nigeria.
This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this topic and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other work or study.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study is restricted to the impact of transportation in the tourism industry, a case study of The Young Shall Grow Motors.
Limitations of study
1. Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
2. Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
IMPACT: This is the action of one object coming forcibly into contact with another.
TRANSPORTATION: Is the movement of people, animals and goods from one location to another. Modes of transport include air, rail, road, water, cable, pipeline and space. The field can be divided into infrastructure, vehicles and operations. Transport is important because it enables trade between persons, which is essential for the development of civilizations.
Transport infrastructure consists of the fixed installations including roads, railways, airways, waterways, canals and pipelines and terminals such as airports, railway stations, bus stations, warehouses, trucking terminals, refueling depots (including fueling docks and fuel stations) and seaports. Terminals may be used both for interchange of passengers and cargo and for maintenance.
TOURISM: Tourism is travel for pleasure; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours. Tourism may be international, or within the traveler's country. The World Tourism Organization defines tourism more generally, in terms which go "beyond the common perception of tourism as being limited to holiday activity only ", as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".
Tourism can be domestic or international, and international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country's balance of payments. Today, tourism is a major source of income for many countries, and affects the economy of both the source and host countries, in some cases being of vital importance.
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