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The study is an assessment of improved water and sanitation coverage in Kaduna South, Nigeria.

Due to rapid urban and population growth, sanitary conditions of urban areas have deteriorated

over time. The objective of the study is to identify the sources of water, assess the role of

household members in improved water and sanitation, determine the time taken to access water

by household members, identify the number of households using improved water and sanitation

facility and to identify key players in providing improved water and sanitation in the study area.

The study utilized primary data by means of questionnaire instrumentation. A total of 382 copies

of the questionnaire were used for the survey. Six (6) out of the thirteen (13) wards in Kaduna

South Local Government Area were selected for the research which are Barnawa, Kakuri Gwari,

Kurmin Mashi, Television, Tudun Wada and Ungwa Muazu. Data analysis was carried out by

Chi-Squares statistical analytical method. Based on the objectives of the study, about 65% of the

interviewed households use protected well as their main source of water, 60 % the role played by

household members in providing improved water and sanitation is performed by adult women,

while 25% of the role is carried out by adult male. Sixty percent (60%) of the respondents

reported that the average time to access water by households is 30mins which meets WHO

standard for distance to water sources. Also, sixty percent (60%) of respondents showed that an

average of 5 households shared a toilet facility in the study area which is unacceptable. Adult

women are key players in providing improved sanitation to household with 60%, the adult male

25% while children less than 15years were 15%. The overall result shows that there is no

significant difference in improved water and sanitation coverage in Kaduna south Local

Government Area. The Chi-Square value (p-value) is greater than 0.05% in the area showing a

no significant difference in improved water and sanitation coverage amongst households. Based


on these findings, the study recommends that government should intensify effort in encouraging

and providing improved water and sanitation, proper enlightenment should be carried out by both

the Government and private partners, more households should be connected to pipe water to

reduce the burden experience, priority should be given to water and sanitation; this would on the

long run reduces disease caused by poor access to potable water and proper sanitation, policies

like connection of household to pipe water, regular house to house inspection, imposition of

penalty, monthly sanitation and design for minimum standard for household sanitation facility

that would enhance better water and sanitation improvement should be implemented.



1.1       Background of the Study

Water, sanitation and hygiene are said to be the basic primary drivers of public

health (Muta‘aHellandendu, 2012). Access to them ensures good state of health and most

importantly, human dignity. However, in both rural and urban areas of developing

countries, a bulk majority of the population lack access to standard water and sanitation

service which accounts for most of the health complications in developing countries (Water

Aid, 2008).

An improved drinking water source is defined as a source by nature as its

construction is protected from outside contamination, in particular from contamination with

faecal matter (WHO, 2010) while improved water supply is said to be the percentage of the

population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved

source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or

spring and rainwater collection (WHO, 2010). World Bank (2013) also defined improved

water supply in term of the percentage of population using water from an improved

drinking water source. Unimproved water sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and

unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20

liters a person a day from a source within one (1) kilometre of the dwelling.

Improved sanitation is defined as one that hygienically separates human excreta

from human contact which include the use of flush or pour-flush toilet/latrine to piped

sewer system, septic tank, pit latrine, Ventilated Improved Pit (VIP) latrine, Pit latrine with

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