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1.0         Introduction

In every society whether rural or urban there is dominant economic activity engaged by large number of population of that society. This research focus on Zobe Dam and its socio-economic impact on the people living around the dam site. A dam is a barrier that impounds water or underground streams to confine and utilize the flow of water for human purposes (Monk house et al, 1973). According to Lawson (1972) resources behind dams are man-made water bodies which are important for water resources development programmes.

Dams are built for single or multiple uses. Single use dams are constructed for single purpose like hydroelectric power generation. Multiple or multipurpose dams are built to supply water for diverse uses such as water supply for municipal and industrial uses, livestock and fishing production etc. (Norman 1976).

Dam project or construction of dams dates to many centuries ago. Starting in the Nile and Tigris in the present day Egypt and Iraq respectively. In Nigeria most of our dams are multipurpose dams, such as Kainji dam which was built in 1968, Tiga dam in Kano, Bakalori dam in Zamfara, Goronyo dam Sokoto, and Zobe Dam in Katsina state (Norman 1976).

Dams have been used by man long before the Christian era. The concept of ancient river valley civilization has been widely accepted for many years and five valley societies of importance are well known as; Egypt in Nile valley, Indian civilization in the Indus valley, china in the yellow river valley (Oliver, 1976).


According to Oliver (1971), the costs of dam construction are expensive. Apart from flood control, they can also be utilize to hydropower, improve navigation, provide irrigation waters and established recreational facilities. Large dams have other negative features in addition to cost. The reservoir that forms behind the dam may in updates thousands of acres of fertile agricultural land. Another disadvantage of dam is that; it has adverse effect on the human health as the water facilitate the breeding of malaria transmitting mosquitoes and tiny black flies that acts as host for worms that can be barrowed into human blood stream and cause river blindness(Oliver, 1971).

Some irrigation, perhaps on the tributaries of big river system and areas surrounding big dams is plausible. In the past the development of methods of capture, control, distribution and use of dams or water has been the predominant issue but this has been submitted with building dams, combine with generating and transmitting electricity and the likes. Today the relevance of dams to human societies is well articulated in literature despite all those negative implementation of dam construction. Against the background, this study seeks to assess the impacts of Zobe Dam on socio-economic activities of people living around the dam site.

1.1         Statement of the Research Problems

The construction of dams is considered as one of the most effective means of solving human problems of water shortage in sub-humid and arid areas. Olofin (1982) assert that in Nigeria, dams’ construction is seen as the only solution to the problem of water scarcity in savannah areas. Ologe (1973), state that dams bring social and economic changes to the regions where they are found. Also Warren and Robbin (1968), show that the creation of large reservoirs inevitably brings a host of changes such as


agricultural innovation in form of irrigation, improved fishing, infrastructure facilities, electricity and pipe borne water. It also brings about some negative socio-economic consequences, like inundation of farms by water, reduction in fishing activities increased health hazard especially those associated resettlement or displacement and relocation of the affected population. However, despite those problems, Zobe Dam like all other dams constructed both within and outside Nigeria have contributed to the improvement of living conditions of people living around dam side. Therefore this study seeks to find out:

1.       What are the forms of human activities taking place around the dam site.

2.       What are the positive impacts of these activities on human life around dam site.

3.       What are the environmental problems faced by people living along Zobe Dam site.

1.2         Aim and Objectives of the Study

The aim of this research is to assess the effect of Zobe Dam on socio-economic activities of people living around dam site. To achieve this aim the following objectives will be persuade.

1.             To identify some forms of human activities around dam site (e.g. fishing, irrigation, transportation etc).

2.             To identify the significance of these activities on the teaming population living along the dam site.


3.             To identify some environmental problems (e.g. flooding, soil erosion, pollution etc) around Zobe Dam site.

1.3         Significance of the Study

1.         This study will provide up to date information about the impact of Zobe Dam on its surrounding environments

2.         The findings of this study will serve as a reference point that can guide future policy on Zobe Dam management.

3.         It will reveal the socio-economic benefits derived by people around dam site.

4.         It will reveal the environmental problems faced by people around the dam site.

1.4         Research Questions

1.             What are the forms of human activities taking place around the dam site?

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