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This project work was designed to examine and analyze the factors affecting the processing production and storage of garri in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. Five research questions were formulated and questionnaires were administered to hundred respondents in Oredo to determine the result for the study. At the end of the study, it was discovered that colour, size, texture and taste of garri depends greatly on hygiene practices, temperature and sequence right or wrong adopted during production. Recommendations included that hygiene practice especially in the early stage of processing garri should be taken seriously in order to avoid the risk of cross contamination must be properly controlled to avoid incomplete detoxification
1.1 Background of the study
The industrial processing of cassava into garri. Cassava is a very versatile commodity with numerous uses and by product. Each component of this plant can be valuable to its cultivator. The leaves may be consumed as a vegetable, or cooked as a soup ingredient or dried and used it to fed livestock as a protein feed supplement. The stem is used for plant propagation and grafting. The roots are typically processed for human and industrial consumption. In Nigeria, the consumption pattern varies according to ecological zones. Garri is a roasted granule, is the dominant product and is widely accepted in both rural and urban areas. It can be consumed without any additives or it can be consumed with a variety of additives such as sugar, groundnut, fish, meat and stew. The north east also uses the cassava as fufu/akpu, garri abacha. Fufu is a fermented wet paste from cassava is also consumed throughout the country especially in the southern zones how every most processors complain that the wet paste are ready to eat forms of fufu, that are currently sold, have a short shelf life. Estimates of industrial cassava use suggest that approximately 16 percent of cassava root production was utilized as industrial raw materials in 2001 in Nigeria. Ten percent was used as chips in animal feed, 5 percent was processed into a syrup concentrate for soft drink and less than one percent was processed into high quality cassava flour used in biscuits and confectionary, destrin pre-geled starch for adhesive, hydrolysate for pharmaceuticals and seasonings. Garri is cassava tuber should be free from microbial contamination garri should be processed within two days of harvest to prevent deterioration or loss of quality in garri. Garri is a creamy-white granular flour with a slightly fermented flavour and a slightly sour taste made from fermented gelatinized fresh cassava tubers. Fresh cassava tuber is most, low acid food that is susceptible to bacteria and fungi growth. Hygienic practices especially in the early stage of processing should therefore ensure minimal contamination, all waste material from the process should be removed from the site as they are produced to avoid contamination of the final product with peel sand. Fermentation must be properly controlled as to short period will result in incomplete detoxification. Fermentation consists of two distinct methods Aerobic and Anerobic fermentation for aerobic fermentation, the peeled and sliced cassava roots are first surface dried for 1-2 hours and then heaped together, covered with straw or leaves and left to ferment in air for 3-4 days until the pieces becomes moldy. The fermented moldy pieces are sun-dried. After the mold has been scrapped off. Theprocessed and dried pieces (called “Mokopa” in ugandal are then milled into flour, which is prepared into a “fufu” called “Kowan” in Uganda. The growth of mold on the root pieces, increases the protein content of the final products three to eight times. (Amey, 1987, Sauti et al, 1987). This fermentation method is also very popular in other parts of East Africa as Tanzania, Rwanda and Zaire. A long period of too will result in given the product a strong sour tests. Both over-fermentation and under-fermentation also affect the texture of the final garri if too much liquid is press from the grinded cassava the gelatinization of starch, during sub-sequent roasting is affected and the product is white. It the sufficient liquid is not removed however the fermentation of granules during roasting is affected and the dough is more likely to form into lumps. The idea of moisture content is about 47-50% and this is assessed visually by experience to the starch, sieving is important because it enable one to obtain a higher quality product free of fibrous contaminated. The granules must be roasted to above 80oc/175oc to achieved partial gelatinization of the starch. If lower temperature are used the product simply dries and produces a dry white powder. Too high temperature will cause charring of the product and make it stock to the roasting pan.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Garri today is a staple food in Nigeria and beyond for us to ascertain proper hygiene quality of the product there is the need to focus on the processes involved. However, due to high demand of garri by consumers the producers of garri no longer see the need to do the right thing to produce high quality of garri what they after this day is the money they will make from the sale of the product. Thus the problem of the study therefore is to find out whether proper hygiene practices are carried out following during the processing of garri to avoid the risk of contamination. The study will be concerned with the fermentation process of garri. Whether the texture of garri is as a result of the fermentation process or whether the grated cassava is over or under fermented. The study is also concerned to ascertain the cause of lumps in garri whether it is due to drought or not. More so, it will focus on the rationale behind the charring of the product and why it sticks to the roasting pan during frying. Thus, the final product reduced to about 18%. This is a problem is commercial production. To produce garri at a fast rate and eliminates the problem of the traditional method.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are;
1. To find out the changes that caused friction between the cassava mash and the conveyor
2. To ascertain the proper hygiene practices that can affect the production of a high quality of garri free from fibrous, contaminants and with similar sized granules
3. To ascertain whether garri produced under fermentation posses better quality production
4. To ascertain whether sieving of garri bring better quality in the texture of garri
5. To ascertain the factors affecting the processing productions and storage of garri
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The research work was restricted by the company in order to develop the hypothesis formulation
Ho: there are no changes that caused friction between the cassava mash and the conveyor
Ho: there are changes that caused friction between the cassava mash and the conveyor
Ho: there are no factors affecting the processing productions and storage of garri
Ho: there are factors affecting the processing productions and storage of garri
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The importance of the study will be overwhelming and have far reaching effects on all firstly it will enable the producers of garri to know the significance of hygiene in the processing production and storage of garri. Hygienic practices especially in the early stage of processing should ensure maximum contamination. It will help the producers to know how it control the fermentation process involved in garri production. It will also help to determine the temperature which a good texture dry white producer a lovely grain garri can be produced. Nevertheless it will help the producers to know the ideal moisture content required `in garri, apart from the overwhelming benefits the producers of gari will derive the study will help consumers of garri to know the process involved in the production of garri and this will help them to appreciate the product better than before.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The researcher selected some local garri producer in villages in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. Nevertheless the research is delimited to the production of garri only. And not all product of cassava can be processed into garri. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Cassava: The root of cassava are rich in carbohydrate, mainly starch, according to some research that was carried out cassava is the third most important source of calories, in terms of consumption either by eaten, grated cassava food products are the most important staples of rural and urban households in southern Nigeria. Current estimates who that the dietary calories equivalent of per capital consumption of garri (toasted granules), chips/flow fermented pastes. Cassava has become a very popular crop and is fast replacing yam and other traditional staples of the area, gaining ground increasingly as an insurance crop against hunger, cassava is also a major cash crop.
Fermentation: Of experience the mash is placed in a porous bag and allowed to ferment for one or two days, while weights are placed on the bag and chemical change, because of the action of bacterial. It also reduced the glycosides in anaerobic fermentation, grated cassava for processing into “garri” is placed in sacks and pressed with stones or a jack fermentation is the heat of garri processing because it is where the poisonous acid (HCN) is detoxified and removed to make the garri edible.
Garri: Is a creamy-white granular flour with a slightly fermented flavour and a slightly sour tastes made from fermented gelatinized fresh cassava tuber. Garri is widely known in Nigeria and other West African countries.
Granules: It is a small hard pieces of garri after been sifted.
Hygiene: It is the practice of keeping the area where garri is been produced should be clean in order to prevent it from bacterial or fungi diseases.
Sieve: Is a tool consisting of a wire or plastic mach held in a frame, used for straining solids from liquids, for separating coarser from finer particles, or for reducing soft solids to a pulp. It is also a safer, a device use for separating wanted elements from unwanted material ort for characterizing the particles.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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