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Water – yam flour was enriched with ingredients such as onions, crayfish, pepper, salt and Maggi seasoning which will in turn be mixed with water and then fried instantly usually known as ‘Ojojo’ by the Yoruba. This study was conducted to produce, and carryout functional, proximate and sensory analysis of spiced water-yam flour. The results shows that organoleptically, Sample A was more acceptable because of its coarseness, while Sample B was considerably accepted because of its appearance and flavor, while Sample C was acceptable for it’s Texture and flavor. Sample C was more acceptable in terms of flavor due to the higher amount of ratio of crayfish to the flour. Water yam flour is produced to prevent post-harvest losses.
Water yam is the tuber of Dioscorea alata also called wild yam is one of the oldest food crops so far. Dioscorea alata is also reffered to as greater yam, Asian greater yam, and ten-month yam (Martin, 1976). It is more important as food in West Africa and the Caribbean than in Asia and the Americans where it originated, and has been competing with the most important native species, Dioscorea rotundata poir. It was introduced to Africa some hundred years ago from Malaysia agriculturists and Portuguese and Spanish seafarers (Martins, 2006). It is next to Dioscorea rotundata in terms of volume of production and extent of utilization Dioscorea alata species is the highest yielding among the yam species and can store relatively longer than other species (5-6 months) after harvest. Dioscorea alata is also known for it’s high nutritional content, with crude protein content of 7.4%, starch content of 75-84%, and vitamin C content ranging from 13.0 + 24.7mg/100g (Osagie, 2002). Dioscorea alata tubers have variable shapes, the majority being cylindrical. It’s tubers vary in number; from one to five. The flesh of the tuber ranges in colour from white to purplish (FAO, 1994). The texture of it’s flesh is usually not as firm as that of water yam and less suitable than other species for the preparation of the most popular food products from yam (Pounded yam) in the West Africa Region. Worldwide yam production in 2007 amounted to 52 million tons, of which Africa produced 96%. Most of the world’s production comes from West Africa representing 94% with Nigeria alone producing 71%, equally more than 39million tons. Though yams can be stored up to six months without refrigeration; Most of the yearly production is lost thought spoilage because of lack of post-harvest facility in the country, (FAO 2007).
This project is aimed to produce instant spiced water yam flour which involves sorting, peeling, slicing, soaking, parboiling, drying and milling and the incorporation of species to yield instant spiced water yam flour.
(Yam production in 2014; crops/regions/world/production quantity; FAOSTAT, Statistics Division of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization 2017, Retrieved 31 May 2017).
As reported by Osagic (1992), Water yam contains 28 percent starch and protein of 1.1-2.2 percent. Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) results from prolong deprivation of essential amino acids and total nitrogen and energy substrates.
Water yam is used in variety of desserts as well as flavor for ice cream, Swiss rolls, cookies, tarts, cupcakes, and other types of pastries. It is usually used in it’s raw form by the Yorubas of Nigeria to prepare Ojojo, and Ikokore’ delicacies. Worldwide yam production in 2007 amounted to 52 million tons, of which Africa produced 96%. Most of the world’s production comes from West Africa representing 94% with Nigeria alone producing 71%, equally more than 37 million tons. Though yams can be stored up to six mouths without refrigeration; most of the yearly production is lost through spoilage because of lack of post-harvest facility in the country. (Yam production in 2014; Crops/Regions World/Production Quantity; FAOSTAT, Statistics Division of the UN food and Agriculture Organization. 2017) Retrieved 31 May 2017.
This project is aimed at producing instant spiced water yam flour is quite simple, it involves slicing, parboiling, drying and milling with the incorporation of species to produce instant spiced water yam flour.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Falling yam productivity has fuelled calls for increased research activities in yam – a crop than serves as staple food to millions of people in Africa. There are great differences in yield between individual countries (FAO, 2007), but for all countries, the average yield level is far below the potential one, which has been estimated (Gurnah, 1974; Martin, 1972).
Yams stored easily sprout which leads to spoillage and wastage.
1.2 JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM
To prevent losses of yam tubers during storage, the production of water yam into flour is a sure and satisfactory way to prevent losses and ease the means of transportation and storage. Addition of spices to the flour will enhance the taste attribute of the flour and add more nutrients prior to nutrients lost during processing of raw yam into flour.
To produce instant spiced powdered water yam.
1.4 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
1. To produce instant flour from water yam
2. To assess the Physiochemical properties of the assessed flour.
3. To carry out sensory evaluation of product produced from the instant flour.
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