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Background of Study
Malnutrition has become one of the major world health problems facing developing countries. Throughout the developing world, malnutrition affects almost 800 million people, or 20 percent of the world population (WHO, 2000; USAID, 2000). Clinically, malnutrition is characterized by inadequate or excess intake of protein, energy, and 2 weaning foods, vegetable, animal proteins and the non-availability of low-priced nutritious foods, combined with bad feeding practices and late introduction of supplementary foods, are mostly responsible for aggravating the disorder among children (Dutra-de-Oliveira, 1991). Good nutrition, particularly during infancy and childhood can promote adequate physical and mental development. Certain nutrients such as protein, fats and oils in food maintain life; thus used for cells growth, repair, and regulation of function (Berggren, 1998, Cameroon and Hofvander, 1971). According to researchers, West African mothers usually breastfeed for 12 months. Many urban poor and rural women breast feed for up to 18 and 24 months (Armar, 1989). However in many West African countries, exclusive breastfeeding is usually adequate up to three to four months of age, but after this period it may become increasingly inadequate to support the nutritional demands of the growing infant. Thus, in a weaning process there is always the need to introduce soft, easily swallowed foods to supplement the infant’s feeding early in life. The weaning process may be gradual, lasting for months until the infant is finally introduced to the family diet. On the other hand, in abrupt weaning, the infant is introduced straight into the family menu with various foods like rice, cassava, corn and tigernut (Eschleman, 1991). This latter option creates a problem, as the child may not be able to eat enough of the adult diet to meet his or her nutritional needs (Kazimi and Kazimi, 1979). These supplements are carbohydrate rich foods, which are actual portions of the adult diet and hence are not suitable for infants especially babies, because of its components, their bulky nature and consistency as well as their inbalance in the nutrient 3 composition. This is the underlying cause of malnutrition in Ghana (Armar-Klemesu and Wheeler, 1991). Over 70% of dietary protein in the developing countries is supplied by cereals that are relatively poor sources of protein (Glover, 1976). Research showed that most of the weaning foods consumed in communities of developing nations are deficient in essential nutrients (FAO/WHO, 1998). Several strategies have been used to improve the nutritive value of weaning foods (Gopaldas et al., 1988). The traditional West - African weaning foods could be improved upon by combining locally available foods that complement each other in such a way that new pattern of amino - acids created by this combination is similar to that recommended for infants (Fashakin and Ogunsola, 1982). However, the high lysine content of legumes improves the nutritional quality of cereals by complementing their limiting amino acids sulphur containing amino acids are limiting in legumes and relatively high in cereals, whereas lysine is limiting in cereals and high in legumes (Bressani and Ellias, 1966; Ekpenyong et al., 1977). Soya beans have recently become popular in the West African sub-region due to their high protein content and quality, and is being cultivated at an increasing stead rate. It is a grain legume, which holds many advantages over animal products. Hence, there will be improvement of the nutritional value of the food as well as the nutritional status of the consumer (the infant) if both cereals and legumes are blended in the preparation of the food. Soybeans, tigernut and maize are locally produced and this may make the soy weaning product very affordable. This study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritive value, biochemical and haematological effect, physiological characteristic and consumer acceptability of a locally produced cereal-based traditional 4 weaning using an animal model. It is in this light that this project seeks to formulate weaning food using soybean, tigernut and maize which would have a high protein content to reduce malnutrition among the children of the Nigeran populace.
Statement of Problem
An estimated 2.5 million Nigerian children under the age of five suffer from Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) every year – an extremely dangerous condition that makes children nine times more likely to die from common childhood illnesses such as such as diarrhoea, pneumonia and malaria. Every year, nearly 420,000 children under five die as a result of this deadly combination in Nigeria.
More than 80 parliamentarians meeting today and tomorrow at the National Assembly are discussing ways they can follow up on commitments they made at a parliamentary meeting in June in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, to protect children from malnutrition. The Nigerian parliamentarians will plan support for Nigeria’s Action Plan to encourage exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of a child’s life; they will also discuss how to better coordinate action to combat malnutrition across all 36 states and better deliver nutrition solutions for children.
1.Assessing the nutritional composition value of the raw soybean (Anidaso and Salintuya 1), maize, tigernut and the formulated weaning food.
2.To evaluate the consumer acceptability of the formulated diet
3.To assess the keeping quality of the formulated diet through microbial and moisture determinations
4.To determine the effect of the formulated diets on anthropometric measurements, biochemical indicators and haematological indices using ANOVA and correlation.
1.What is the nutritional composition value of the raw soybean (Anidaso and Salintuya 1), maize, tigernut and the formulated weaning food?
2.What is the consumer acceptability of the formulated diet?
3.What are ways of keeping quality of the formulated diet through microbial and moisture determinations?
4.What is the effect of the formulated diets on anthropometric measurements, biochemical indicators and hematological indices using ANOVA and correlation?
Significance of Study
The study is very necessary because food nutrient present in a food may not necessary be available for absorption. However, there is much evidence from studies on experimental animals and human subjects that substituting soy-protein for animals in the diets improved upon their health by reducing the concentration of total and Low Density Lipoprotein cholesterol in the plasma or serum. From the above reason this project seeks to: Formulate weaning diet using composite flours of tigernut, maize and soybean and assessing its effect using animal model.
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