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1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Recently, a number of food-borne illnesses occurred worldwide have aroused the concern and anxiety of the public about food safety. Most of these food-borne illnesses are caused by mishandling or improper preparation/storage of food by food handlers. In order to ensure food safety and prevent food poisoning, all food businesses including food service organizations should comply with the existing food regulations as well as prepare their own food safety plan to prevent food poisoning.
The increasing number of food poisoning outbreaks and food-related scares has led to calls for better hygiene and quality practices. Food poisoning outbreaks of salmonella, listeria, and Escherichia coli have made the public more skeptical of the food they consume. In recent months the debate surrounding The European Commission has recognized the importance of controlling food-poisoning outbreaks owing to the increasing number of meals consumed outside the home, in parallel with the ever-expanding range of pre-prepared meals.
This changing consumer lifestyle emphasizes the need for better, effective ways of controlling food hygiene. There is strong statistical evidence that the incidence of food poisoning caused by caterers is greater than in any other food sector, accounting for 70% of all bacterial food poisoning outbreaks. Seventy per cent of these food poisoning outbreaks are due to the inadequate time and temperature control of food, while the remaining 30% are the result of cross-contamination (Wilson, Murray, Black, & McDowell, 1997).
The hands of food service employees can be vectors in the spread of food-borne diseases because of poor personal hygiene or cross-contamination. For example, an employee might contaminate his hands when using the toilet, or bacteria might be spread from raw meat to salad greens by food handler’s hands, point out that data on risk factors for food-borne diseases imply that most outbreaks result from improper food handling practices (Ehiri & Morris, 1996). A study in the USA suggested that improper food handler practices contributed to approximately 97% of food-borne illnesses in food-service establishments and homes (Howes, McEwen, Griffiths, & Harris, 1996).
Food poisoning follows the ingestion of microorganisms that may have been present in already contaminated food, which may have resulted from inadequate food preservation techniques or unsafe handling practices or which may have arisen from cross-contamination from surfaces, equipment, or, less likely, from persons who carry enterotoxigenic staphylococci in their nails or on their skin (Barrie, 1996; Jay, Comar, & Govenlock, 1999). Similarly, infected food handlers are also a common source of food-borne viruses such as the Hepatitis A virus and the diarrhoea-causing, small round-structured viruses which are excreted in large numbers by infected individuals. Many cases of foodborne virus infection have been associated with catering (WHO, 1999). Poor sanitary practices in food storage, handling, and preparation can create an environment in which bacteria such as camphylobacter, salmonella, and other infectious agents are more easily transmitted (Fielding, Aguirre, & Palaiologos, 2001; Gent, Telford, & Syed, 1999).
Food handlers may transmit pathogens passively from a contaminated source, for example, from raw poultry to a food such as cold cooked meat that is to be eaten without further heating. They may also, however, themselves to be sources of organisms either during the course of gastrointestinal illness or during and after convalescence, when they no longer have symptoms.
During the acute stages of gastroenteritis large number of organisms are excreted and by the nature of the disease are likely to be widely dispersed; clearly, food handlers who are symptomatically ill may present a real hazard and should be excluded from work. Good hygiene, both personal and in food handling practices, is the basis for preventing the transmission of pathogens from food handling personnel to consumer. (Bryan, 1988; Evans et al., 1998). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), with support from enforcement agencies and the food industry and catering establishment has endorsed food service worker training since 1976; however, since that time, the retail food service industry, has intensified efforts to improve retail food safety through training of restaurant managers and employees (Lynch, Elledge, Griffith, & Boatrigh, 2003).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
When food poisoning outbreaks are investigated it has been established that small and medium sized catering establishments are often important locations in the transmission of food-borne illness and poisoning. There are many issues imposing risk on food safety due to industrialization and mass production, emergence of longer and more complex food chains, fast food consumption, street vendors and growing international trade and tourism. Besides, long-term inflation and other economical causes; advertisements, growing eating out habits (fast foods, restaurant meals etc.) are also the likely causes of food safety problems. The purpose of this study is to examine the methods of prevention of food poisoning in a catering establishment.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The following are the objectives of this study:
1. To examine the prevalence of food poisoning in catering establishments.
2. To examine the methods of preventing food poisoning in catering establishments.
3. To identify the factors causing food poisoning in catering establishments.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the prevalence of food poisoning in catering establishments?
2. What are the methods of preventing food poisoning in catering establishments?
3. What are the factors causing food poisoning in catering establishments?
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The following are the significance of this study:
1. The outcome of this study will educate caterers, small and medium scale food sellers and the general public on the approaches to the prevention of food poisoning especially in catering establishments.
2. This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.
1.7 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study will cover the approaches to prevent against food poisoning in catering establishments.
LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work
Barrie, D. (1996). The provision of food and catering services in hospital. Journal of Hospital Infection, 33, 13–33.
Bryan, F. L. (1988). Risks of practices, procedures and procedures that lead to outbreaks of food borne diseases. Journal of Food Protection, 51, 663–673.
Ehiri, J. E., & Morris, G. P. (1996). Hygiene training and education of food handlers: Does it work? Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 35, 243–251.
Evans, H. S., Madden, P., Doudlas, C., Adak, G. K., O Brien, S. J., Djuretic, T., Wall, P. G., & Stanwell-Smith, R. (1998). General outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease in England and Wales: 1995 and 1996. Communicable Disease and Public Health, 1, 165–171.
Fielding, J. E., Aguirre, A., & Palaiologos, E. (2001). Effectiveness of altered incentives in a food safety inspection program. Preventative Medicine, 32, 239–244
Gent, R. N., Telford, D. R., & Syed, Q. (1999). An outbreak of camphylobacter food poisoning at a university campus. Communicable Disease and Public Health, 2, 39–42.
Howes, M., McEwen, S., Griffiths, M., & Harris, L. (1996). Food handler certification by home study: Measuring changes in knowledge and behaviour. Dairy, Food and Environmental Sanitation, 16, 737–744.
Jay, L. S., Comar, D., & Govenlock, L. D. (1999). A video study of Australian domestic food-handling practices. Journal of Food Protection, 62, 1285–1296.
Lynch, R., Elledge, B. I., Griffith, C. C., & Boatrigh, D. T. (2003). A comparison of food safety knowledge among restaurant managers, by source of training and experience, in Oklahoma county, Oklahoma. Journal of Environmental Health, 66, 9–14
World Health Organisation (WHO). (1999). Strategies for implementing HACCP in small and/or less developed businesses. The Hague, 16–19 June, 1999. World Health Organisation, WHO/SDE/FOS/99.7, Geneva
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