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1.1 Background of The Study
Sabon Tasha is located in Chikun Local Government Area. It lies along Kaduna Kachia express way. The area was formally known as Sabon Gari which became a native reservation, officially reserved for employees of the government and commercial firms and in practice inhabited by residents (Steven, and Toyin, 2004).
Motor park, industries, schools, hospitals, government offices, shops, religious centers as determinants of population distribution, because they provide employment opportunities, with this, there is a continue influence of people in, out and across Sabon Tasha which led to a large population size. As societies (cities) grow in population and physical size, so its land use complex and as land use become more complex so is household waste management.
The study is set out to learn how resident of Sabon-Tasha, Kaduna metropolis perceive the rate of household waste generation and management in the area and what actions they are taking currently to combat the health and environmental hazard posed by the indiscriminate household refuse dumping.
Waste can be defined as scraped materials or an effluent or any unwanted surplus substance arising from application of any process. Wastes include predominantly household (domestic) with sometimes the addition of commercial waste which are either solid or semi-solid from generally exclude industrial hazardous waste. Management of household waste is one of the challenges facing any urban area in the world. Household waste management involves generation, storage and disposal of waste from dumpsite.
Waste management is the collection, transport, processing or disposal, managing and monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity and the process is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health and the environment. Waste management is a distinct practice from resource recovery which focuses on delaying the rate of consumption of natural resources. Generally, waste management tends to treat all waste materials as a single class, whether solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive substances, and attempt to reduce the harmful environmental impacts of each through different methods.
1.2 Statement of The Research Problem
The increase in population Sabon-Tasha area has led to the drastic increase in the volume of household waste generated in the area, heaps of household waste are common in features in the street corner, open space between houses, behind houses in drainage paths, these indiscriminate dumping and poorly managed household waste have been a problem to the people living in the area and the local government as a whole is faced with an environmental that constitute hazard to man and his environment. Household waste generation increase due to increase in population and household activities and also the cost to maintain the environmental quality by the provision of portable water, sewage treatment and management of household waste.
However, there are those who dump their waste in node signaled pick-up point usually in a corner of street, mothers and house help are responsible for household waste management, the large scale production an improper disposal of waste has become a source of pollution and further accumulation of waste has resulted to serious deterioration in quality and the ecological balance. Many diseases like cholera and gastroenteritis have been reported due to lack of collection and disposal of waste, insanitary condition and unsafe drinking water waste management, cost effective method environmentally and procedurally safe and acceptable at low maintenance level.
Further besides being eye sore, the waste deposing health and environmental hazard for people. Since the problem of waste has become serious, it is necessary to create an environmental consciousness among the people. The data has revealed that waste recycling awareness is not found in the study area (Sabon-Tasha). Household waste has been collected by district council and country in holes called landfills sites. Most bulky household waste has also ended up in landfill sites. This has generally been the cheapest option, however, the capacity of landfill sites is diminishing and it means that other option need to be considered to manage the volume of waste we generate. The cost of disposing of water will escalate and if nothing is done now and no new facilities are provided for the future, this cost could be even greater. As a householder, this can help protect the environment by reducing and recycling waste specifying whenever possible. The problem associated with the disposal and hence it calls for active involvement of but public and private sectors towards solving waste management problem.
Household waste management is a major problem affecting Sabon-Tasha, in Kaduna metropolis, despite the sitting up of Kaduna State Environmental Protection Authority (KEPA), the situation has remained largely characterized by indiscriminate dumping of waste such as food waste, paper, polythene, scrap materials, glasses, cans wood, plastic etc. in virtually every part of the area, waste has constituted problems like heaps of waste which causes road and rail blockage, air pollution, open air burning, leach ate which has adversely affected the general aesthetic nature of the environment. This also causes some health related problem such as cholera, typhoid, malaria, diarrhoea etc. all these attributed to very poor management of household waste.
Despite the efforts put in by KEPA in managing waste in Sabon-Tasha it still faces the waste management problem. A major premise responsible for the poor management of waste in the Sabon-Tasha area is the absence of a well-defined management structure. Therefore, the research problem seeks to assess the way waste in Sabon-Tasha, Kaduna metropolis is well managed towards providing a better way of solid waste collection and disposal, and proposing an institutional framework that will help the government agency for a better waste management structure.
1.3 Research Questions
i. What are the Socio-demographic Characteristics of the respondents?
ii. What is the waste disposal method in the study area?
iii. Who is in-charge of waste management in the study area (Sabon-Tasha)?
iv. What are the problems associated with waste management in Sabon-Tasha?
1.4 Aim and Objectives
The aim of this research is to assess the nature of household waste generation and management in Sabon-Tasha of Kaduna metropolis. The specific objectives are to:
i. Assess the Socio-demographic Characteristics of the respondents.
ii. Examine the waste disposal method in the study area.
iii. Identify who is in-charge of waste management in the study area (Sabon-Tasha).
iv. Assess the problems associated with waste management in Sabon-Tasha.
1.5 Scope of the Study
The scope of the study is based on waste management in Sabon Tasha market, Chikun Local Government Area, Kaduna State.
The spatial scope of the study is Sabon Tasha, Chikun LGA., it is located between latitude and of the Equator and longitude and of the Greenwich meridian.
The population of Sabon Tasha as at 2001 was 37342 (Department of Research and Statistics, Federal Ministry of Economic Planning, 2002). This population is now projected to 2018 using annual growth rate of 3.0 to have 51568.
The scope of the study is centered on the objectives which are to: Assess the Socio-demographic Characteristics of the respondents, examine the waste disposal method in the study area, identify who is in-charge of waste management in the study area (Sabon-Tasha), and assess the problems associated with waste management in Sabon-Tasha.
The data used were obtained from the people of the study area.
1.6 Justification of the Study
The world is becoming increasingly urbanized. The outbreak of disease and the associated environmental problems are increasing in frequency and magnitude. However, government agencies have showed little concern to the issue of improper household waste management within the study area (Sabon-Tasha). Furthermore, this study among other things will be relevant to all spheres and sectors of endeavor. It may serve as a white paper for policy formulation by government and its agencies as it intends to conduct an in-depth exploratory research on the status, challenges and immediate and remote challenges confronting waste management agencies in Kaduna State especially KEPA. In addition, environmentalist stand to benefit from this study as it will expound on their level of professionalism towards environmental protection. Lastly, upcoming researchers in same or related field may find this study beneficial as it may serve as a reference material for further studies. Therefore, this research intends to fill gaps in the field by providing adequate information and suggestions about household waste management practices to the government and to the general public for the purpose of solving the problems posed by household waste generation in the study area.
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