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Municipal solid waste management constitutes one of the most crucial health and environmental problem facing the world especially African cities. Most cities spend 20-50% of their annual budget on solid waste management. This study “Analysis of solid waste management in Maitama, Abuja” The set objectives were to identify the structure of solid waste management in Maitama district, examine the coordination of the solid waste management in the district, examine the sustainability of the process of solid waste management from generation to disposal and to identify the role of scavengers in solid waste management in Maitama. These were carried out by administration of questionnaires to the residents and waste managers. The socio-demographic characteristics in the study revealed that women are mostly involved in domestic solid waste management than men and that Maitama district is inhabited mostly by high income earners hence an average house size of 4-10 persons. The study reveals the heterogeneous nature of solid waste composition in the area which may require sorting for effective recycling process. Among the various methods of municipal solid waste collection, collection of waste by the waste managers has the highest proportion in the study area, different times of solid waste collection was reported ranging daily, twice or thrice in a week depending on when the waste managers come. However, the residents adjudged the services (collection and disposal) of the solid waste managers as satisfactory and that their charges for collection of waste were moderate. Among the problems of domestic solid waste as perceived by the respondents in the study area was poor sanitary habits of residents, and poor attitude towards payment of waste are the major problem of solid waste management,. It has been revealed through this study that some of the contractors /waste managers are not thorough in the collection of waste. The AEPB should device other means to ensure residents comply with payment for their waste since this happened to be a major challenge that affect them. They can liaise with other government agencies like First Inland Revenue Service (FIRS), Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) since they use pay as you go/use. Other agencies like banks can be of good help to ease payment
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Human society makes a living by extracting environmental resources for food,
shelter, and clothing, using tools he conceives, fabricates and develops over time. His
ingenuity at making tools perfects his power to obtain and utilize the available resources
sometimes with impunity. Such technological sophistication termed civilization facilitates
faster acquisition and utilization of environmental resources. The consumption of these
resources tends to generate waste or unwanted materials that must be discarded. These
wastes vary from gaseous, liquid and solid substances, generated as a result of human
activities (Peter, Karl, and Jurg, 1996).
According to Ezema (2009), wastes are useless, unwanted and discarded materials.
Douglas (2004) corroborates Ezema‟s stance and argues that waste is material which
arises from animal and human life and activities and is discarded as useless and unwanted
items. Solid waste can also be referred to as wastes from households, municipal services,
construction debris and agricultural activities (Amalu and Ajake, 2014). Odacha (1994)
considered wastes as material which though may no longer be needed here become feed
stock or materials elsewhere. In fact, he defines waste as those materials which are
generated as a result of normal operations over which we have control in terms of their
production, disposal, and discharge.
Human society at every stage of civilization generates wastes, however, the rate of
generation and methods of disposal vary from the individual to nation depending on the
level of the technological development. One of the challenges of the 21st century is how to
achieve cost-effective and environmentally sound strategies to deal with the global waste
crisis confronting humanity in both developed and developing countries. The crisis has
threatened the carrying capacity of the life support systems. Waste generation and disposal
has in time past caused environmental pollution with disastrous health consequences
(Ayuba, 2005). Srinivas (2002) reported that at least 60% of the countries that submitted
the national report to the United Nations in advance of the 1992 UN Earth Summit said that
solid waste disposal was among their biggest environmental concern, while the United
Nation Centre for Human Settlement report that only between 25% and 55% of all waste
generated in large cities are collected by municipal authorities.
The United Nation Development Program (UNDP, 2009) estimated that more than
five million people die each year from disease related to inadequate waste disposal system.
Most cities in Africa are with fast expansion of urban areas and are characterized by lack of
resources, institutional organization and the capacity to provide basic infrastructure, which
will in turn cause increased problem concerning the management of solid waste. Moreover,
the lack of proper land use planning has resulted in the creation of informal settlement, with
narrow streets and makes it difficult for collection trucks to reach many areas in the cities.
Solid waste management could be defined as the discipline associated with the
control of generation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and disposal of
solid waste in a manner that is in accord with the best principles of public health, economic,
engineering, conservation, aesthetics and other environment consideration that is also
responsive to public attitudes (Tchobanoglous et al 1993). Municipal solid waste
management is an important part of urban infrastructure that ensures the protection of the
environment and human health (Aliyu, 2010).
The current capacity of most solid waste management system in Africa is
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