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According to Adedokun, (2014) geographically, "spatial models" refer to the organization and placement of people and objects in the human world. It may refer to the distances between them or to the regularity of distribution between them.Furthermore, Adedokun stated thatone of the factors that distinguish an urban area from a rural area is economic differentiation. While rural areas are dominated by primary economic activities, urban areas occupy mainly secondary and tertiary functions that take into account the concentration of people in them. These secondary and tertiary activities include manufacturing, trade, transportation and other services. All these activities combine to generate the spatial configuration of the city, because their needs are sometimes functionally differentiated and spatially separated (Adedokun, 2014)
Over the last three decades, much research has been done on the physical and social characteristics of the city. This work shows that urban growth has been increasing throughout the world (Mabogunje 1970, Onokerhoraye 1982, Adedibu and Akorede 1980, Aderamo 1990, Ahmed 1996) to name just a few. These authors have noted in one way or another the importance of the structure and socio-economic characteristics of a city as relevant factors in this growth.
The effects of urbanization on the growth of the city were also examined by social authors. Chabot et al. (1967) described urbanization as a continuous and dense agglomeration of people and housing. A consequence of the colonial era has been the strengthening of urbanization in most developing countries, which has led to random and uncontrolled growth in most metropolitan areas. These areas have developed in spatial magnitude and density, demonstrated by the outward expansion of the built-up area to their immediate rural environment. Hushak (1975) described an urban periphery as the areas of residual influence of the city; such influence can be political, economic or social.
There may therefore be several areas of overlap in this influence of a given city. In terms of geographical distance, Hushak describes a periphery to include the districts served by the city's television or radio stations, the areas covered by the newspaper circulation by the city's suppliers or the areas linked to the city by other forms of daily spatial interactions between their inhabitants. Thus, the city and its spatial are geographically contiguous but have certain distinct socio-economic characteristics. However, other terms often used for a spatial of the city include, urban-urban fringe, urban shadow, suburban, ex-urban, Leapfrog and commuting areas (Russwurin 1964).
The urban centers of the word are therefore constantly growing and changing and this led to the metropolitan explosion (hall 1982). The process of this growth has created several problems for peripheral regions under the influence of these rapidly developing cities. It is because they are located at the door of these urban centers that establishments that are far from urban centers. These peripheral areas close to urban centers are under pressure from the cities they surround. This pressure was created by the need to accommodate rapid growth in various forms of urban-related activities. Little attention has been paid to the growth of these peripheral areas. In developed countries, problems of this kind are borne by the application of development control, while in developing countries the lack of effective control in peripheral regions becomes chaotic.The spatial of Ilorin in this study connotes the areas and settlements that are immediately adjacent to the traditional Ilorin built neighborhoods and which share the problems and prospects of the growing metropolis.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The problems of cities and their mitigation efforts are attracting worldwide attention because of the growing proportion of the world's population affected by these problems. Urbanization and its consequences are a global phenomenon and the increasing size and scale of urban settlements is a feature of the contemporary era (Michael, 1981). The urban scene is often characterized by slums, traffic congestion, burning and obsolescence. The central part of a city called "Core" is extremely congested and decomposing while peripheral areas of the city known as "suburban" is extended with tendencies toward chaotic development (Aderamo 2002). Most cities have lost their original dignity, social cohesion, economic viability and administrative efficiency.
1.2 THE RESEARCH PROBLEMS
The rapidly increasing size and population of cities in developing countries has led to random and uncontrolled growth in most metropolitan areas. These areas have developed in the spatial extent and density manifested by the outward expansion of the built-up area to their immediate environment (Hall 1982). The process of this growth has created several problems for peripheral areas under the influence of rapidly developing cities. Thus, this study is to examine such a problem within the Ilorin metropolis.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this work is to examine spatial growth in the Ilorin metropolis in order to identify the problems associated with this expansion and to suggest solutions to problems.
To achieve this objective, the following objectives will be pursued.
(i) Identity the problems associated with spatial growth
(ii) Examine land-use patterns and the interaction of selected peripheral areas in the Ilorin built-up areas.
(iii) Identify some of the public utilities present in Ilorin peripheral area and how accessible they are to the people.
(iv) Suggest solutions to urban problems identified
1.4 Research questions:
(i) Is there any relationship between population growth and metropolitan expansion of Ilorin?
(ii) What are the problems associated with metropolitan expansion in Ilorin?
(iii) What is the level of accessibility to public utilities in peripheral areas of Ilorin?
(iv) What is the land use pattern of Ilorin periphery?
(v) Are there any actions by the government to control arbitrary development in peripheral areas of Ilorin?
These questions would be answered in the conduct of this work.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The urban centers of the world are constantly growing and evolving, leading to a metropolitan expansion (hall 1982). The process of this growth has created several problems for regions under the residual influence of rapidly developing cities. As such, little attention has been paid to the growth of these peripheral areas, which show trends towards chaotic development. This study will highlight the process and model of urban growth as well as accessibility to public services such as roads, electricity, water, schools, hospitals, etc. in the peripheral regions of Ilorin. The results of this work will help planners, stakeholders and the government to formulate public policies that would improve the proper control of the development of the urban suburbs and the adequate provision of public services.
1.6 JUSTIFICATION FOR THE STUDY
A metropolitan area can be described as the merging of a considerable number of communities forming an area built on a continuous basis and having a large population deriving its economic substance from activities that originate or end in the region. Different communities are united by a number of interests that enable them to feel and behave in groups even when the composition of the group is heterogeneous (Mabogunje, 1968).
The metropolis of Ilorin occupies a central position as the most important and influential commercial and administrative city in the state of Kwara and as such has experienced the need to accommodate rapid urban growth. The current rate of growth is faster than the rate at which public services and services could be provided. The population of Ilorin has increased due to natural increase and migration. These have resulted in a critical shortage of housing and other spaces to meet the demand for new land use requirements. The result has been for most users to move to the periphery where land is cheaper and affordable.The land-use model of Ilorin-city includes the use of land for residential, commercial, recreational. Transportation, open space, green acre and so on. In the past, land use rates in hectares of urban land use in Ilorin were about 0.0007, but increased to 0.006 in 1963, 0.007 in 1973, and 0.01 in 1982. This increase Of the land use rate indicates a new development of land use Graduates over time, Olorunfemi (1981). These statistics describe the gradual spatial expansion of the town of Ilorin in its peripheral zone. Since peripheral growth is evidence in Ilorin, then this work would examine peripheral growth in the Ilorin metropolis in order to identify problems associated with this outward expansion.
1.7 THE SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study covers the immediate environment of the Ilorin built area using the linear model of peripheral expansion along four major interurban axes that cross the town of Ilorin. Specifically, the areas to consider are: OkeOse area along the Old Jebba Road, north of the town of Ilorin,including the Ganmo area, along the Ajase-po road, the local government area of Ilorin South, the northeast of the city, Shao along the Sobi road, the local government area of Moro, Northwest of the city and Eye-Asa, to the southwest of the city.
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