AN ANALYSIS OF HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF LAND FILL EMISSIONS. (A CASE STUDY OF THE ABA ROAD LANDFILL IN OWERRI, IMO STATE, NIGERIA)

AN ANALYSIS OF HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF LAND FILL EMISSIONS. (A CASE STUDY OF THE ABA ROAD LANDFILL IN OWERRI, IMO STATE, NIGERIA)

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ABSTRACT

In recent years, there has been a tremendous increase in solid waste generation, resulting to the heaps of refuse along major streets and roads in most cities of Nigeria, and other developing countries which has been converted into landfills. The need to control this ugly situation and make our environment pristine, healthy and supportive prompted this work. The study involved gathering of field information to reveal the major types and sources of solid wastes that makes up landfills, their modes of management and the environmental and health implications. The instrument used was a questionnaire which was administered to 836 respondents. The findings showed the major components of solid waste generated to be biodegradable (62%) with the major source being markets (44%), while the predominant management method was open dumping system (46%). Majority of the respondents (88.4%) indicated awareness of the adverse health and environmental impacts of improper solid waste management.

CHAPTER ONE

BACKGROUND TO STUDY

The urban communities of underdeveloped nations are developing at extremely fast rates contrasted with those in the developed countries (UN-Habitat, 2010). Such high rate of development of urban areas has suggestions for the arrangement of urban infrastructural administrations to keep the expansion of urban slum. The expanding development of urban communities, along these lines, has suggestions for city waste  management among other social administrations required in the urban communities (Ogunrinola and Adepegba, 2012). Waste  management is the accumulation, transport, preparing, reusing or transfer of waste materials; and can be viewed as a standout amongst the most difficult territories of current natural management (Egun, 2009).

Regardless of the serious endeavors in alternate techniques for transfer, and utilization of strategies on waste  diminishment and reuse, landfills still stay as the fundamental piece of the strong waste management designs in dominant part of the World (Ozeair and Mohsen, 2010).Landfills ought not be seen as being in rivalry with other waste management innovations. Or maybe it supplements elective waste management innovations, as all elective waste treatment frameworks bargain just with some part of the waste stream, and in themselves offer ascent to deposits that require transfer at last by means of landfill. Much of the time, a landfill is the main alternative accessible to the Local Government Area waste  management units and Private Sector Participants (PSPs) after the accumulation of metropolitan strong waste.

Landfilling is the most straightforward and regularly least expensive strategy for discarding waste(Aduja, 2005). In most low-to medium-salary creating countries, all produced strong waste goes to landfill. Indeed, even in many developed nations, landfilling is the most mainstream transfer strategy. In the European Union, in spite of the fact that approaches of decrease, reuse, and preoccupation from landfill are unequivocally empowered, the greater part of the part states still send an overabundance of 75% of their loss to landfill (fred, 1998). Also, in spite of the fact that the extent of waste to landfill may in future diminishing and the aggregate volumes of metropolitan strong waste (MSW) being developed are as yet expanding altogether for some developed nations. Landfill is subsequently anticipated that would remain an applicable wellspring of groundwater contamination for a long time to come (William ,2001).

The effect on water assets from landfills in dry regions must be taken note. Regardless of whether low expenses and high accessibility of negligible land have made landfilling the most generally utilized waste transfer strategy, landfilling effectsly affects water assets. Truth be told, most dry territories experience the ill effects of the disjoin precipitation disintegration which could build the likelihood of surface and ground water tainting. Transfer of fluid waste isn't extraordinary in landfills in bone-dry territories. Imo state, for instance for the semi-parched and bone-dry areas, has seen an expansive increment in populace amid the previous five decades because of populace development and constrained relocations (chukwu, 1998). Went with of this expansion, prudent and social advancement has enhanced the way of life and changed customer propensities in the group, bringing about an unmistakable increment in the volume of waste.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The rate of creation of MSW in Imo state has been evaluated at 1,960,000 tons every year with a normal age rate of 0.95 kg/top/day in urban and 0.85 kg/top/day in rustic regions (Philip, 2000) and is relied upon to achieve 2.5 million ton by 2015. There is clear a need in waste  management rehearses, particularly the correct landfilling, combined with the quick increment in strong waste, which represents a negative impact on health and environment.

landfilling practiced in Imo state is still simply dumping the waste in trenches with leveling and compacting by trash compactors to reduce the size and the thickness of the layers, and finally cover the waste with soil (trenches method) (john, 1993). The trenches method is used in most of Imo state landfill due to their simple set-up and low operational requirements. The construction of a trench must be carefully pursued in order to minimize the leachate of pollutants into the soil and groundwater.

OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

The objective of this study is to determine and assess the environmental and health impacts of emissions. Specifically the study aims at:

1.     Assessing the major types and sources of  waste  in landfills in aba road imo state

2.     Determining the health impact of landfill emissions on residences at aba road in imo state  

3.     Suggesting appropriate control method to minimize negative effects of landfills on human and the environment.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The research questions to guide this study are:

1.     What are the the major types and sources of  waste  in landfills in aba road imo state?

2.     What are the health and environmental impact of landfill emissions on residences at aba road in imo state? 

3.     what control method can minimize negative effects of landfills on human and the environment.

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

The research hypothesis for this study is:

HO: landfill emission doesn’t poses a great threat to the health conditions of the people, and the environment

H1: landfill emission poses a great threat to the health conditions of the people, and the environment

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Most importantly, this research work is to contribute to the knowledge on the landfills, health and environmental management.

It shall also act as a basis for further investigation or scrutinization on waste management.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study is limited to Aba Road Landfill In Owerri, Imo State and upon the subject of the study which is an analysis of health and environmental impact of land fill emissions.


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