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1.0 Background to the study
The National Environmental Management: Waste Amendment Act, 2014 (NEM: WAA, 2014) defines waste as ant substance, material or object, that is unwanted, rejected, abandoned, discarded or disposed of, or that is intended or required to be discarded or disposed of, by the holder of that substance, material or object, whether or not such substance, material or object can be re-used, recycled or recovered and include all wastes.
Waste can be classified by physical state (solid, liquid, gases) (NEM: WAA, 2014). Solid waste can be further characterized by original use (packaging waste, food waste etc.), by material (glass, paper, wood, etc.) and by physical properties (combustible, compostable, recyclable) (Tchobanoglous & Kreith, 2002).
The NEM: WAA classifies waste into two classes based on the risk it poses, specially general and hazardous waste. General waste is defined as waste that does not poses an immediate hazard or threat to the health or to the environment (NEM: WAA, 2014). Hazardous waste is defined as waste that contains organic or inorganic elements or compounds that may, owing to the inherent physical, chemical or toxicological characteristics of that waste, have a detrimental impact on health and the environment and includes hazardous substances, materials or objects within the business waste, residue deposits and residue stockpiles (NEM: WAA, 2014).
Municipal solid waste (MSW) is defined to include refuse from households, non-hazardous solid waste from industrial, commercial and institutional establishments (including hospitals), market waste, yard waste, and street sweepings. Municipal solid waste (MSW) is defined by Cointreau (1982) as non-air and sewage emission created within and disposed of by a municipality, including household garbage, commercial refuse, construction and demolition debris, dead animals, and abandoned vehicles. Municipal solid waste is generally made up of paper, vegetable matter, plastics, metals, textiles, rubber, and glass (USEPA, 2002).
The solid waste management problem in Nigerian cities is becoming more alarming. The volume and range of solid wastes generated daily in Nigeria has been increasing within the last few years. This is mainly due to the high population growth, urbanization, industrialization and general economic growth (Ogwueleka, 2004).
Cities are regarded as the most efficient agents of production (Hardoy, Mitlin and Satherthwaite, 2001). This population increase compounds the problems of solid waste management. Worse still, government agencies responsible for managing solid waste, especially in urban areas are either nonexistent or ineffective.
Urban land use become complex as the city grows in population and physical size and so does the solid waste generation increase in volume and varieties. Urban land uses vary from residential, commercial, industrial, institutional; and others, with each category generating its own peculiar type of solid waste. However, residential land use constitutes the single most important generator of solid waste in Nigeria urban areas (Adegoke, 1990). Because of the complexity of the household wastes, the socio-economic structure of the urban population becomes a major determinant of the spatial structure of solid waste problems in our cities. (Uwadiegwu, 2003) in a study noted that the quantity of municipal solid waste produced depends upon the living standard of the residents, urbanization and industrialization.
Okoye (2004) indentified household size, income level, level of technological advancement and socio-economic status as factors that affect the quantity of solid waste generation, but however, noted that a single factor may not on its own constitutes a difference in the quantity of waste generated by a household. (Afon, 2005), in a study of waste generation in Oyo state, Nigeria, discovered that as education, income and social status increase, per capita waste generation declines. This, he explained is partly influenced by the differences in employment/livelihood pattern in the area. On the main cause of solid waste crises in Nigeria, (Igbodobe and Anyata, 2009) indentify the problems of insufficient available data, funding, poor understanding of solid waste management and residents attitude.
It is common for most of the solid waste generated in urban areas to be collected and dumped indiscriminately within or on sites outside the city without site preparation. (Sule, 2001), however, observes that the type of waste disposal method adopted in any particular area depends largely on the prevailing local conditions such as availability of open space, accessibility and attitude of the people. From a global perspective Ali et al (1999) reiterates that disposal practice vary from city to city and country to country. As a panacea, Dung-Gwan and Magaji (2007) stressed that enforcement of waste management legislation is required as a proper policy and planning framework for waste management. Urbanization directly contributes to waste generation, and unscientific waste handling causes health hazard and urban environment degradation.
Nigeria has undergone rapid urbanization during the past fifty years. The numbers of urban dwellers are expected to double between 1987 and 2015 (Ogwueleka, 2004). Urbanization implies the expansion of slum areas and the creation of new ones. Population growth intensifies the pressure on urban infrastructure in many cities in Nigeria that are already over burden with the provision of urban services. Most cities lack the resources to meet the demand for services such as water, sanitation and solid waste management. The insufficiency of services results in a deterioration of the urban environment in form of air, water and land pollution that poses risk to human health and the environment. Many municipalities see solid waste management as a problem of equipment, particularly how to obtain and maintain technologically advanced compactor trucks, hydraulic-compressor containers, and transportable containers and transport vehicles. In developing countries, with insufficient technical services, spare part and maintenance budgets, when such technically sophisticated equipment breaks down, the entire system fails. The waste generated by a community reflects its way of life, its wealth and its culture. Some communities use and discard great quantities of paper, others throw organic materials away. Restaurants dispose of quantities of food that is still fresh but however, it might be very valuable to the owner of animals. Thus, what is waste to one person might be a valuable resource for others.
Solid waste disposal is the disposal of normally solid or semi-solid materials, resulting from human and animal activities that are useless, unwanted, or hazardous. Solid waste typically may be classified as garbage, rubbish, ashes, large wastes, dead animals, sewage treatment solids, industrial waste, mining waste and agricultural wastes.
Municipal solid waste is a major concern in developing countries like Nigeria as high poverty, population growth, and high urbanization rates combine with ineffectual and under-funded government to hamper efficient management of wastes (Cointreau 1982, Doan 1998). In most cities and large towns in Nigeria, solid waste is not only heaped in huge quantities on refuse dumps but also thrown and made to lie around in piles in the street and in small illegal dump on any piece of unused land. Most third world countries have worst cases than industrialized countries which have the money and technical know-how and public attitudes to control and manage their waste to some degree.
The common waste disposal method are sanitary landfill which is the disposal of waste material or refuse by burying it in natural or excavated holes, depressions, incineration; burning the refuse to ashes. There is also the compost heaps where the refuse is left to degrade by aerobic microorganism and its used as fertilizer, then the resource recovery, a process of recovering energy and reusable materials from solid waste before decomposition or landfill. The resources also goes further to be utilized by the principal of 3Rs (reduce, reuse, and recycle) (Taiwo, 2011).
Considerable percentage of urban waste in Nigeria is deposited on either the roads, or road sides, unapproved dumpsites, in water ways drainage system, or in open sites, which adversely affect environmental friendliness. In fact, solid waste poses various threats to public health and adversely affect flora and fauna as well as the environment especially when it is not appropriately collected and disposed (Geraldu, 1995). Thus, the adjacent areas including high ways, farmlands, forest plantation, etc, are encroached upon which has a toll on biodiversity conservation (Hardy and Seatterwaite, 1992). Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) refers to the collection, transfer, treatment, recycling, resources recovery and disposal of solid waste in urban areas. The goals of municipal solid waste management are to promote the quality of urban environment, generate employment and income, and protect environmental health and support the efficiency and productivity of the economy.
The volume of solid waste being generated continues to increase at a faster rate than the ability of the agencies to improve on the financial and technical resource needed to parallel this growth. Per capita rate of municipal solid waste production in Nigeria is about 49million kg per year (Cyget, 2002; Aboyede, 2004) and the main components of these wastes are organic materials, paper, plastics/rubbers, textiles, and metals (Ojolo, 2004).
According to All Sites Engineering (Ogwueleka, 2009), 320kg of waste is generated per month in Kaduna state. The main purpose of solid waste management is to minimize the adverse effects on the environment. The steps involved are collection, disposal, and utilization of solid waste.
Collection of waste include gathering the waste, transporting it to a centralized location, and then moving it to the site for disposal. The collected waste is then separated into hazardous and non-hazardous materials. Before the final disposal of solid wastes, it is processed to recover the usable resources and to improve the efficiency of the solid waste disposal system. The main processing technologies are compaction, incineration, and manual separation. The appropriate solid waste disposal method has to be selected, keeping in view the objectives of economic viability and not constituting a health hazard. It should also not cause adverse environmental effects or result in unpleasant sight, odor and noise.
Improper handling of solid waste is a health hazard for workers who come in contact with the waste. The environment is also affected if solid wastes are not treated properly, decomposition and putrefaction may take place, causing land and water pollution when the waste products percolate down into the underground water resources.
The organic solid waste during decomposing may generate obnoxious odors. Stray dogs and birds may sometimes invade garbage heaps and may spread it over the neighborhood causing unhygienic and unhealthy surroundings. Municipal solid waste management is a major responsibility of State and Local Government environmental agencies. The agencies are charged with the responsibility of handling, employing and disposing of solid waste generated. The state agencies generate fund from subvention from state government and internally generate revenue through sanitary levy and stringent regulations with heavy penalties for offenders of illegal dumping and littering of refuse along streets (Ogwueleka, 2003). But despite all the effort and initiatives, the management of waste continues to pose different challenges. Managing waste in Nigeria is a problem due to many factors, including lack of adequate funding and excessive population, lack of trained/professional waste managers, and lack of effective monitoring and control.
Also, at the core of the problems of solid waste management are the absence of adequate policies, enabling legislation, and an environmentally stimulated and enlightened public. Government policies on the environment are piecemeal where they exist and are poorly implemented. Public enlightenment programs lacked the needed coverage, intensity, and continuity to correct the apathetic public attitude towards the environment. Up to now the activities of the state environmental agencies have been hampered by poor funding, inadequate facilities and human resources, inappropriate technology, and an inequitable taxation system. Successful solid waste management in Nigeria will require holistic programs that will integrate all the technical, economic, social, cultural, and psychological factors that are often ignored in solid waste programs.
Waste generation, both domestic and industrial, continues to increase world-wide in tandem with growth in consumption, increases in populations of developing countries result in increasing waste generation. This can result in environmental degradation and pollution on global, regional and local scales. These environmental effect in turn can cause detrimental effect to human health which places increased pressure on natural resources (Bosman, 2009).
Developed countries generate larger amount of waste; however they have developed adequate facilities and have competent government institutions and bureaucracies to manage their wastes (Rajput, R., G. and A. K. Chopra, 2009). Developing countries are still in the transition towards better waste management but they currently have insufficient collection and improper disposal of wastes (CSIR, 2011).
1.1 Statement of Research Problem
In recent years, there has been a phenomenal increase in the volume of wastes generated daily in the country. This is due to a number of reasons including the increasing population growth rate, increasing urbanization, industrialization and economic growth. In addition, many urban areas of Nigeria lack effective waste management systems. As a result, most urban households resort to the haphazard dumping, burning and/or burying of solid wastes. (Agunwamba, Egbiniwe and Ogwueleka 2003).
Agunwamba (1998) stated that the problem of waste management in Nigeria is due to the absence of public policy, enabling legislation and an environmentally stimulated and enlightened public. Appropriate policy and institutional mechanism for implementing of waste management strategies are critical for sustainable waste management. Where the policy is poor or the public is not properly sensitized or there are no proper enforcement of laws and regulations, waste management is a problem or challenge.
Furthermore poor waste management and disposal could lead to various diseases, infections and infestation and these include fly transmitted diseases like meiosis, diarrhea, typhoid, cholera; rodent transmitted diseases like lassa fever plague, leptospirosis, murine typhus; mosquito borne diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, fila-raisis, and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Also gases like methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and mercury vapour emitted from land fill site can constitute air contaminants and pollution. Another problem people face in proper waste management and disposal is the absence of storage facilities (waste bins with tight fitted covers) in some houses which lead to littering of refuse around the house, worsened by the absence of drainage systems in such houses. Even where the drains are available the are either constructed without a gradient or not properly maintained as they are clogged or blocked with sand or other debris thus preventing sewage drainage (Adogu, Egenti, Nkwocha, Okwuoha, and Uwakwe, 2015).
In Armenia, collection, transportation, treatment and disposal of municipal solid waste have been neglected for several years because of inadequate resource. The existing institutions are inadequately equipped in terms of skills and capital resources to effectively manage the waste problems (NEAP, 1998). Waste collection and transportation activities are quite poor organized. Waste generation is primarily a function of people’s consumption patterns and thus is based on their socioeconomic characteristics. Low-income groups and the very poor typically generate low volumes of organic waste.
In Tashkent, Uzbekistan, for example, there is little food to go around and the parts that are not consumed by the household members are used for the domestic animals or composted to amend the garden soil. Those who are somewhat better off may share leftovers as well as old clothing with those more needy (Bernstein, 1999).
Therefore, the research problem seeks to assess the way waste in Ungwan Rimi is managed towards providing a better way of solid waste collection and disposal, and proposing an institutional framework that will help the government agency for a better solid waste management structure.
1.2 Statement of Research Question
The need to address these problems prompts the following question:
a) What is the nature of waste management?
b) What are the nature of problems and consequences of waste specifically municipal solid waste within Ungwan Rimi?
c) What are the possible measures for effective collection and disposal of solid waste?
1.3 Aim and Objectives
The aim of this research is to assess the effective waste collection, disposal and management within Ungwan Rimi. The study has the following objectives:
a) To examine the nature of waste management.
b) To examine the consequences of waste disposal.
c) To ensure and proffer adequate and viable recommendation of effective collection and disposal of waste.
1.4 Scope of the Study
For the purpose of this study, attention will be given or focused on waste generation and its problems particularly within Ungwan Rimi. The study will also focus on type of collection and disposal of waste within the study area. This study is going to be based on solid waste, this is because it is the most dominant waste that is viable and occupies much space in terms of volume.
1.5 Justification of the study
The wastes in Ungwan Rimi spoil the beauty of Ungwan Rimi. The major reason for this is poor solid waste management. Solid waste management is an important and integral part of our society and therefore needs to be acknowledged as one of the few things that may help to preserve the beauty and splendor of Ungwan Rimi, for future generations. Waste generation increases with population expansion and economic development. Improperly managed solid waste poses a risk to human health and the environment. Uncontrolled dumping and improper waste handling causes a variety of problems, including contaminating water, attracting insects and rodents, and increasing flooding due to blocked drainage canals or gullies. In addition, it may result in safety hazards from fires or explosions. Improper waste management also increases greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which contribute to climate change. Planning for and implementing a comprehensive program for waste collection, transport, and disposal, along with activities to prevent or recycle waste can eliminate or at least reduce these problems.
This study will have the following importance: Firstly, the study will contribute a better theoretical understanding of the overall features of solid waste and physical factors on the process of municipal solid waste management on the whole population; Secondly, the study will give some guide line information to policy makers, municipality, solid waste managers and researchers about the pre-existing situation of municipal solid waste management in the area. Thirdly, it may also important in putting base line information to the next work who would like to conduct detailed and comprehensive studies in the town and other study area. Fourthly, the study will contribute better to understand the present status of solid waste management and handling practices in Ungwan Rimi and finally its ultimate significance is achieving the objective of the study.
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