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1.1 BACKGROUNG OF THE STUDY
In the sanitation of the environment, disposal of wastes has been identified as being of utmost importance. It is the first problem which must be discussed in any community for the fact that it is basically controlled for enhancement of health of the people in the environment, because the success of any other health measures introduce will depend to a large extent upon the efficiency with which it is solved. The task of maintaining a healthy environment through sanitary disposal of waste has become more difficult in recent times in West Africa and most other developing countries of which Nigeria is one. The reason been that of population explosion, migration of the people from rural to urban areas: the mobility of population as a result of style of life: the increase in outdoor recreation and industrialization.
Health planners; therefore, as those charged with the responsibility of providing health to the people: determine what wastes are: identify the various types of wastes and highlight the relationship between wastes and public health, with a view to working out suitable ways of dealing with these wastes.
However, the waste problem has become inter-government in scope and the local governments still retain their constitutional roles, the state and the federal government have assumed the role of the big brother in waste management the role of Local Government in waste management is imposed both by the federal constitution and the local government (Basic and transitional provision). Act 1989. Indeed waste management has been recognized as an integral part of health and environment services of local government for the state government.
Most states in the federation have by enabling edicts established environmental sanitation authorities, in which. we have Lagos sat waste management Authority (LAWMA) in Lagos, Ibadan solid waste management authority Oyo State etc, whose primary institution are disposal and management of solid waste.
The need for the agencies has arisen from the expanding complexity of the waste and the inability of the rations local government councils to cope with the problem alone.
1.2 PURPOSE OF STUDY
The purpose of this study IS to determine the extent to which the facility used by local government to manage waste needs to be improved upon,' to be able to cope with the mounting bills of refuse that abound in the urban center. The study will also try to determine if the participation of private initiatives will assist the government in improving the general health of the populace.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following are the research question, which the study aims to provide answer to.
i. How effective IS the use of private initiative in the control of waste disposal?
ii. Is there any correlation between waste disposal management and health hazards?
iii. What is the role of government in waste disposal management? iv. Can any economic value be derived from the salvage of material from waste?
1.4 PRELIMINARY HYPOTHESES
The following hypotheses will be the main focus of the study.
i. Ho: The introduction of private initiatives does not contribute to effective waste disposal management
Hi: The introduction of private initiatives will contribute to effective waste disposal management.
ii. HO: Ineffective waste disposal management does not contribute to health hazards
HI: Ineffective waste disposal management contributes to health hazards.
iii. HO: Government involvement is not needed for the effective management of waste disposal.
Hi: Government involvement is .needed for effective waste management control.
iv. HO: Salvaging for waste materials as a mean of employment is not a worthwhile venture. Hi. Salvaging for waste materials as a means of employment is a worthwhile venture.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study will be limited to finding out an appropriate sanitation and cost effective system of waste management in Lagos State and mushin Local government area in particular, which will eradicate the environmental health problems, and to examine the existing methods of waste management and also to select viable ones among them for efficient management of these wastes.
It will also try to identify the environmental health problems associated with ineffective waste management and the effects on the people in the communities under Mushin Local Government and Lagos State at large.
1.6 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF SURULERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT
Surulere Local Government is described as the center of commerce. It is located in the heart of Lagos and has modern amenities like tap water, electricity supply, telephone network, and good road networks it is bounded in the north by Oshodi-Isolo Local Government, in the East by Shomolu Local Government and in the south by mainland Local Government.
Formerly, Surulere was part of Ikeja Native Authority in the western Region before it was carved out as a District in 1954 with its boundary extending to the present Shomolu Local Government council, initially Surulere District council started as a one room rented shop on palm Avenue, but it was later moved to Isolo road on the site presently Occupied by the Lagos State waste disposal board and the Nigeria police zone D command.
The council moved to its present administrative secretariat in 1965 when its Isolo road secretariat was razed down during the political riot code named "Wetie".
With the army suspension of political activities in 1966 and the creation of Lagos State in 1966, Mushin District council was elevated to a town council Status. The 1976 Local Government edict divided the council into two: Surulere west Local Government which covered Surulere, Agege motor Road, Isolo, Shogunle, Onigbongbo, Ejigbo, Odi-olowo; Maryland, Ilupeju, Cappa and Estate. While Surulere East Local Government covered Bariga, Shomolu, Kosofe and environs.
With subsequent persistent agitation from members of the public, the Government later changed the name Mushin East to Shomolu Local Government.
During the civilian administration between 1979 and 1983 Surulere Local Government was divided into four local governments councils, namely, Surulere Itire /Tkate. Oshodi/Isolo and Odi Olowo / Ojuwoye / Onigbogbo.
The council Management System of Local Government was however short-lived as the military Administration that came into power in December 1983 abolished the proliferated system and maintains the 1976 status quo. Consequently, the three defunct Local governments served as area offices to Surulere Local Government for administration convenience.
The creation of 12 local government in 1989 and, subsequent boundary adjustment saw surulere Local government, losing some of its area of Ikeja and Mainland Local Government.
The declaration of August 27 and 29, 1991 by the federal Government saw the creation of 15 Local Government in Lagos State and once again Surulere Local Government lost Oshodi/lsolo thereby leaving only Surulere Ilupeju and Itire areas, with the provisional figures of the 1991 National census putting the Mushin Local Government population at 986,847 people.
1.7 LIMITATION TO THE STUDY
The research work on waste disposal management will be restricted to Lagos Sate and Mushin Local Government in particular. To a large extent, the records and documents to be used in the writing of the project will be limited to this defined local government, Surulere Local Government and Lagos State.
In the same vein, waste management is the realm at which the writing of this project will revolve so as to point out the necessary areas in which improvement are necessary to this field of management.
1.8 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
Some of the terms used in this study are briefly defined as follows:
1. Planning- it is the process by which we prepare for the future not compromising the present the and considering the past.
2. “K.A.I” - Kick Against indiscipline it is agency set up by the Lagos state Government to curb in discipline and environmental nuisance.
3. Incineration: it is the process in which waste is reduced to harmless ashes through the application of heat (burning).
4. Sanitary land filling: This is the process by which waste dumped at the landfill sites were covered daily with earth materials (sand) and there are facilities for odour, litter, vermin and rodent control.
5. Compositing- it is the process in which the waste is sorted and the bio-degradable substance in the waste are dried and converted from can be used as soil conditioned.
6. Recycling: A process by which some useful materials are sorted from waste and are made to pass through series of process or treatment to make other similar materials e.g glass, plastics.
Resource Recovery: it is the regaining or bringing back to normal condition certain useful materials from waste e.g returnable bottles, pallets and others.
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