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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
A robot is a mechanical or virtual intelligent agent that can perform tasks automatically or with guidance, typically by remote control. In practice a robot is usually an electro mechanical machine that is guided by computer and electronic programming. Robots can be autonomous, semi-autonomous or remotely controlled. Robotics can be described as the current pinnacle of technical development. Robotics is a confluence science using the continuing advancements of mechanical engineering, material science, sensor fabrication, manufacturing techniques, and advanced algorithms.
There is no one definition of robot which satisfies everyone and many people have their own. For example Joseph Eagleburger, a pioneer in industrial robotics, once remarked: can’t define a robot, but I know one when I see one.” According to the Encyclopedia Britannica a robot is “any automatically operated machine that replaces human effort, though it may not resemble human beings in appearance or perform functions in a humanlike manner.” The word “robot” comes from the Czech word “Robota,” which means “slave-like labor “ or “forced-work”. Merriam-Webster describes a robot as a “machine that looks like a human being and performs various complex acts (as walking or talking) of a human being”, or a “device that automatically performs complicated often repetitive tasks”, or a “mechanism guided by automatic controls”, Robotics can be defined as the science or study of the technology primarily associated with the design, fabrication, theory, and application of robots. While other fields contribute the mathematics, the techniques, and the components, robotics creates the magical end product. The practical applications of robots drive development of robotics and drive advancements in other sciences in turn. Crafters and researchers in robotics study more than just robotics.
When societies first began developing, nearly all production and effort was the result of’ human labor, as well as with the aid of semi- and fully domesticated animals. As mechanical means of performing functions were discovered, and mechanics and complex mechanisms were developed, many tasks began to require less for human labor.
Machinery was initially used for repetitive functions, such as lifting water and grinding grain. With technological advancement more complex machines were slowly developed, such as those invented by Hero of Alexandria (in Egypt) in the 1st century AD and the first half of the second millennium AD.
Robots in antiquity and through the Middle Ages were used primarily for entertainment. However, the 20th century featured a boom in the development of industrial robots. Through the rest of the century, robots changed the structure of society and allowed for safer conditions for labor. In addition, the implementation of advanced robotics in the military and NASA has changed the landscape of national defense and space exploration. Robots have also been influential in the media and profitable for toy manufacturers. Robots began as entertainment for royalty. Inventors such as Al-Jazari and Leonardo Da Vinci worked to build automatons for their benefactors. Al-Jazari built a floating band that resembled humans and performed various songs and drum beats depending on the programming of a series of pegs. Da Vinci created an automation based on the knight’s armor. It could stand and move its arms and neck, as well as open its mouth. Since the invention of the robots, many designs of robots have being made for various functions in the world all the various robots are designed for their specific functions and thus there is specialization in their operation. The robot that is designed in this concept is specialized for industrial use in such places a production, security and home cleaning. (http:llwww.ehow.com).
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
• The aim of this project is to design a robot that is controlled using a wireless means, radio frequency to be precise
• The main objective of implementing this project is to practically apply all the electrical and mechanical engineering principles that have being studied.
• The project also examines the application principles of embedded systems and how to use these principles to implement expert systems. And f to put the principles of artificial intelligence into real life application.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
In today’s modem life, technology has contributed in peoples lives in many ways. Especially robotic systems with artificial intelligence can perform many industrial duties and getting to be increasingly important for some people However, there are those who think that robots have negative effect on people and can bring extreme danger in the future. These points of view must be addressed accordingly It has also been proven, that robotic systems have benefited in many ways. For instance, few robots have helped children with developmental disabilities; others have improved the health status of people with different deficiencies. People who have experienced therapy robots in their lives have commented that robots brought confident in their lives as well as solved problems with their health. The other fact is that in some industrial countries robots are helping children with deficiencies to develop faster arid have influenced positively to their behavior.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The project covers a wide range of areas of applications that include the use of the robot for room cleaning function; the robot can also be used’ in a manufacturing process to transfer materials from one end to another. It also, finds an important application in security surveillance systems where they can be used as a spy machine. They can also be used by the military for security and surveillance. The project based on its design is expected to carry an additional weight of about 1kg and can be controlled at a range of about 10 Meter from the place where the robot is placed and also has the ability to run for a couple of hours.
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