THE PROBLEM MILITATING AGAINST EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL IN SAKI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OYO STATE

THE PROBLEM MILITATING AGAINST EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL IN SAKI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OYO STATE

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CHAPTER ONE

BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Social Studies was introduced into the official school curriculum following its success in solving societal problems not only in Britain but also in America as well as Nigeria in the late 1960s. This programme of study was first introduced in Britain after the 1st and 2nd world wars in order to appease the conscience of the citizens to respect constituted authority, submissive to their parents, show regards to the elders of the society, help to protect public property, value the lives of fellow citizens and contribute positively towards the development of the society. (Edinyang, Mezieobi and Ubi 2013).

        The national curriculum conference held in 1969 at Lagos was a major turning point in the history of curriculum development in Nigeria and a historical landmark in the history of education in Africa. Fafunwa, (2004:239), observes that it was the first national attempt to change the colonial orientation of the Nigerian educational system and promote national consciousness and self- reliance through the educational process. The recommendation of the national conference according to Fafunwa, emphasizes national unity, citizenship education, national consciousness, nationalism and national reconstruction. These recommendations became the bedrock on which the Nigerian Educational goals were realized. The National Policy on Education (FRN 2009), spelt out the goals of Nigerian education which include; the inculcation of national consciousness and national unity; the inculcation of the right types of values and attitudes for the survival of individuals and the Nigerian society; the training of the mind in the understanding of the world around; and the acquisition of appropriate skills and the 2 development of mental, physical and social abilities and competencies as required for the individuals to live in, and contribute to the development of the society.

        The desire to achieve the aforementioned goals prompted the introduction of more subjects into the primary and secondary schools among which is Social Studies Education which is the focus of this study. Thus, For the philosophy to be in harmony with Nigeria‘s national objectives, Social Studies education is geared towards self-realization, better human relationship, national consciousness and national unity as well as towards social, cultural, economic, political, scientific and technological progress. These are the main targets of Social Studies Education. Ogundare (1984:82), says Social Studies programme should aim at achieving the diverse and ever changing physical and social environment as a whole including its natural resources, together with the rational use and conservation of these resources for development; developing in the learners, the capacity to learn and acquire skills including not only the basic skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing but also of developing the skills of hand together with those of analysis and inference which are important in the formation of sound judgment; developing in children, positive and desirable values of citizenship and the desires in them to make positive contribution to the creation of a united Nigeria; and inculcating in the learners sympathetic views which will enable them to appreciate the diversity and interdependence of all members of the local community and of the wider national and international community.

          Effective teaching of Social Studies is a process by which a Social Studies teacher adopt all the possible method used in teaching in the classroom to make sure that students understand Social Studies and be able to respond positively during assessment or to produce a good result. Teachers’ effectiveness is exhibited in the teaching method, classroom managements, the material as well as the way students are being handled, a good teacher always bear in mind the individual differences of the students while presenting the lesson and frequently check the student’s understanding of his or her points to make sure that they are getting of understanding his lesson. This also includes the ability of the teacher to answer question asked by the students, having knowledge about his or her subject matter and ability to show students how to conduct appropriate research.

          Effective teaching is crucial, in order for students to reach educational success in and outside classroom setting, therefore, there has been some factors militating against effective teaching of Social Studies in senior secondary school in Nsukka Local Government Area, which some of them are as follows:

1. Unqualified Social Studies teacher: Inappropriate training background of science teachers especially Social Studies teachers and qualification of Social Studies teachers are the major factor that militate against effective teaching of Social Studies because some Social Studies teachers in some senior secondary school did not undergo enough training to enable them get skills, qualities and enough knowledge of the subject matter and how to impact the knowledge to the students.

2. Poor method of teaching Social Studies in senior secondary school: For teaching to be effectives one must use different methods of teaching. According to Eke (2001), teaching is effective if only it produces or yields the desired results, the ability of the teacher to adapt to different situations and produce a desired result in the classroom is a mark of teaching effectiveness. Vennier and Faith (2001) are of the opinion that all the teaching activities are supposed to produce learning, so that test of effective teaching will be amount of learning that occurs.

          When the following methods are used, teaching of Social Studies can be effective. According to Bigmen (1999), activity method, inquiry method, and discovery method which elicit student’s interests and enhance their level of attainment or comprehension of Social Studies. Activity method the methods that encourage students to participate actively during the lesion while teaching at the same time. Oforkansi (2008) defined activity method as a method whereby the students learn through active involvement rather than being passive or being at the receiving end.

According to Ofokansi (2008), discovery means finding out. Exploration, manipulation and experimentation are components scientific enquiry that help one to discover. This approach demand that the teacher create the problem and allow the pupil/students to find answer for themselves. The author also said that enquiry involve active participation by the student/pupil rather than transmit a preconceived notion about situations.

3.Inadequte supply of Social Studies equipment: In some schools, many laboratories equipments like microscope, glass tube, Beaker, slide, Bones of vertebrates etc. charts of different animals development, systems, organs, etc, work book for practical and textbooks are not adequate for the students in learning of Social Studies. Social Studies is a science subject which is all about practical and also when combined with other science subject one will be able to study courses like medicine, nursing, pharmacy etc in higher institution. Beaty and Woolnough (1990) are of the opinion that the obsolete and insufficient teaching of Social Studies in senior secondary schools. They stressed that the teacher may be competent enough and have all the qualities to impact the knowledge to the students but to the obsolete and insufficient availability of biological equipment the aim is defeated.

          Teachers attitude towards the teaching of Social Studies: the teachers personalities such as the way the teacher walks, talks, reacts to issues, his/her code of conduct and dressing code has become the major factors which leads to the ineffective teaching of Social Studies. It goes with the saying that the personality of such teacher affect the effective teaching of Social Studies in a great way. Enwieme(2001) continuous to stressed that teachers personality invariably affect the effectiveness of teaching of Social Studies. Oforkansi(2008)opinion that personal qualities do not only enhance teaching and learning but also promotes the tone of the school as well as the profession.

          In summary, ineffective of teaching of Social Studies in Nuskka Local Government Area could be due to the several reasons such as classroom management, communication, teachers qualification, supply of Social Studies equipment, teachers personality, negligence of seminars, and workshop by the teachers of Social Studies, inadequate illustration and practical aspect of Social Studies is another factors, infrastructural facilities and absences of laboratories etc.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

          Social Studies is one of the core vocational subjects, which is supposed to be the most interesting subject to students in senior secondary schools. It has been discovered that the effective teaching of Social Studies has been very important. But the rate at which students fails Social Studies in result time’s shows that effective learning has not been attained by these students. Aganga (2000) observed that “Many secondary schools, especially the public schools have insufficient competent teachers as well as biological equipment in their different schools”. Therefore, there is the need to answer certain questions to re-enforce their effectiveness in teaching.

1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY

          The purpose of the study is to find out the factors that militate against the effective teaching of Social Studies in senior secondary schools in Saki West Local Government Area. Specifically the study aims at finding out.

1.          Identify the problems facing the teaching and learning of Social Studies in secondary schools in Saki West LGA of Oyo State

2.          Ascertain whether some of these problems are very serious, serious or not serious Saki West LGA of Oyo State

3.          Ascertain whether the same problems are facing both public and private schools in Saki West LGA of Oyo State

4.          Determine whether the identified problems are a function of the types of the schools (girls only, boys only, or mixed) in Saki West LGA of Oyo State

5.          Ascertain whether some problems are functions of location of the schools in Saki West LGA of Oyo State.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

           In the course of this work, specific research questions to be answered are:

1.          Identify the problems facing the teaching and learning of Social Studies in secondary schools in Saki West LGA of Oyo State

2.          Ascertain whether some of these problems are very serious, serious or not serious Saki West LGA of Oyo State

3.          Ascertain whether the same problems are facing both public and private schools in Saki West LGA of Oyo State

4.          Determine whether the identified problems are a function of the types of the schools (girls only, boys only, or mixed) in Saki West LGA of Oyo State

5.          Ascertain whether some problems are functions of location of the schools in Saki West LGA of Oyo State.

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

The following Ho were formulated by the researchers and tested at 0.05 level of significance.

There will be no significant difference in the perception/rating of the respondents on the problems of teaching and learning Social Studies in public and private schools

1.5 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

This research will be beneficial to:

1. Teachers: The result of this research will enable teachers to use different teaching methods in teaching Social Studies

2. The result of this study will enable educational supervisors (government officials) to check the activities of schools and show that qualified teachers are used.

3. To provide adequate information in the availability of the scientific specific Social Studies equipment in senior secondary schools in Nsukka Local Government Area.

1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY                   

        The following are used for the study: the factors militating against effective teaching of Social Studies in senior secondary schools in Nsukka Local Government Area.

1. The educational qualification of the teacher in senior secondary schools.

2. The methods used in teaching Social Studies in senior secondary school.

3. Inadequate supply of Social Studies equipment and


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