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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The workplace of the 21st century is a fast-paced, dynamic, highly stimulating environment which brings a large number of benefits and opportunities to those who work within it. The ever changing demands of the working world can increase levels of stress, especially for those who are consistently working under pressure such as bank workers, medical workers etc. Whilst pressure has its positive side in raising performance, if such pressure becomes excessive it can lead to stress which has negative consequences (Issa, et al. 2009; Al-khasawneh and Futa, 2013; Santiago, 2003). According to the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 6th Edition, stress could among other things, refer to pressure, tension or worries arising from problematic situations in an individual’s life. Where the incidence of such stress is traceable to a job or work situation, it is known as job stress (Narayanan et al 1999). As Narayanan et al (1999) further observed that job stress could in fact be identified with almost any aspect of a job or work situation such as extremes of heat, noise and light, or too much or too little responsibility etc. According to Irene (2005) job stress is a pattern of reactions that occurs when workers are presented with work demands that are not matched to their knowledge, skills or abilities, and which challenge their ability to cope. It is evident from this Irene’s definition that job stress is mostly associated with under-employment. Stress at work is a relatively new phenomenon of modern lifestyles. According to Beheshtifar and Nazarian (2013), it is an unavoidable consequence of modern living. The nature of work has gone through drastic changes over the last century and it is still changing at whirlwind speed. They have touched almost all professions, starting from an artist to a surgeon, or a commercial pilot to a sales executive. With change comes stress, inevitably. In most cases, job stress is attributable to negative situations such as a formal reprimand by one’s superior for poor performance. Beheshtifar and Nazarian (2013) submit that stress is much more common in employees at lower levels of workplace hierarchies because they have less control over their work situation. However, pleasant circumstances could also bring about job stress, such as job promotion and transfer to another location. Job stress has attracted considerable attention in recent times especially within the context or organisational behaviour (Kazmi et al 2008; Shahu and Gole 2008; Nilufar et. al. 2009). According to Robbins and sanghi (2006) “A dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraints, or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important.” stress is an increasing problem in organizations and often cause adverse effects on performance. According to Kahn and Quinn (1970) “stress is the outcome of facet of the assigned work role that caused harmful effect for individual. Occupational stress is considered as harmful factor of the work environment.” It also has unpleasant effects on health of an individual as David (1998) contributed “it can also be labeled as the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs www.ajbms.org Asian Journal of Business and Management Sciences ISSN: 2047-2528 Vol. 1 No. 7 [38-47] ©Society for Business Research Promotion | 39 of the workers. Job stress can lead to poor health and even injury.” According to ILO (1986)“It is recognized world-wide as a major challenge to individual mental and physical health, and organizational health.” Although stress includes both good and bad aspects but it is not necessarily bad. Robbins and sanghi (2006) also contributed “stress is typically discussed in a negative context; it also has a positive value. It is an opportunity when offers a potential gain.” Rubina et at., (2008) contributed the same “Stress is not always negative or harmful and indeed, the absence of stress is death.” But it still has destructive impact on employee performance. Most research findings suggest that when an individual comes under stress, his cognitive performance and decision-making may be adversely affected. Kazmi et al (2008) investigated the effect of job stress on job performance and found that there is a negative relationship between job stress and job performance. Shahu and Gole (2008) inquired if there was any relationship between job performance, job satisfaction and job stress and found that higher stress levels are related to lower performance. Sabir and Helge (2003) note that the major changes that have been implemented in the financial sector have caused major negative effects on workers’ working and personal lives. Santiago (2003) examined the negative effects of internal stress on police performance and found that the negative stress that often results from organisational settings through poor management can be debilitating. According to Usman and ismail (2010)“One of the affected outcomes of stress is on job performance. “so it needs to be studied. There is evidence to suggest that there are ways in which an organisation can help to reduce instances of job stress, or better manage the issue when it arises. In order to reduce or avoid job stress, Fako (2010) points to the importance of role clarity, a reasonable workload, the need for employees to maintain a healthy diet, and the need to avoid regularly putting in extra hours at work. Effective people management, good two-way communication between employers and employees, suitable working environments and effective work organisation are just some of the factors which can have an impact (Mbadou and Mbohwa, 2013). However, there is the need to examine critically, the nature and effect of job stress in Nigerian Banking Sector before suggesting ways by which the management could deal with it and this is the main thing this study is addressing
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The extreme work stress also makes an employee feel do not valued and cause performance to decline. This is because employees can’t think well and get lazy to work. As state by Cordes and Dougherty (1993) the emotional exhaustion, negative self-evaluations, and lowered self-esteem are also associated with worker stress. The enough stress can inspire employees’ potential and the job performance will increase. However, job performance will directly influence by work stress (Jex, 1998). Tseng (2001) stated that hi-tech worker feel more stress then traditional industries. So, it is necessary to conduct research to find out the main factors worker stress and suggest ways to overcome the problem of worker stress. This study is important because if the problem is not resolved it may cause problems to the organization and employees in the future.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
I. To investigate the effect of job stress on workers
II. To examine the nature of job stress faced by workers
III. To identify the factors that is responsible for job stress for workers. .
IV. To ascertain the strategies for dealing with job stress among workers.
V. To determine the effects of stress on job performance
VI. Make recommendations on appropriate ways to proactively and effectively manage stress in the workplace.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
Ho: There is no significant relationship between work stress and job performance.
HI: There is a significant relationship between work stress and job performance.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between workload and job performance
HI: There is a significant relationship between workload and job performance
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of this study is to identify the effects of the worker stress on the job performance. Other than that, this study also will find out the relationship between worker stress and job performance. Thus, the results of this study will benefit the manufacturers, workers, prospective employees and the future researchers. This study is significant because it will provide the indispensable fact about effects of worker stress to the job performance in manufacturing sector, including the cause of worker stress, their department and gender. This study will serve as the basis for future plans of action by electronic manufacturer and worker to manage the stress so as not effects the job performance. Among the persons who will be directly or indirectly involved are manufacturers, workers, potential workers and the future researchers. The finding by this research not only benefit the top manager of manufacturing but also the entire organization management as it will create a milieu of the importance of management of work stress. May be with the availability this study, they can improve employees management system in manufacturing and other industries. Other than that, this study also involved workers and prospective employees. Workers in manufacturing, including the future workers will have a better understanding of the effects of work stress on their job performance. It can help them to manage the stress in order to not interfere with the job performance and life. It can also be used as preparation for potential employees to facing some stressful situations at work. In addition, this study will serve as a theoretical model for the future studies in the same nature. Future researchers will benefit from this study, and it will provide the facts needed to compare their study during their respective time and usability.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study is primary concerned with the effects of stress on the job performance of workers. This study/project work covers college of education, Ekiadolor. The researcher encountered some constraints, which limited the scope of the study. These constraints include but are not limited to the following
a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
STRESS: is a biological term that refers to the cause of the failure of a human or animal to respond appropriately to emotional or physical threats to the organism. As mentioned by Selye (1950, 1956) the physiological response in nature involving an alarm stage followed by stage of resistance giving way, under some circumstances, to a final stage of exhaustion. Stress is a feeling that's created when we react to particular events. It's the way of body rising to a challenge and ready to meet a tough situation with strength, focus, and heightened intelligence. Stress can be in any situation that make you feel angry, nervous, frustrated or frustrated. Job PERFORMANCE: job performance is an individual level variable. That is, performance is something a single person does. This differentiates it from more encompassing constructs such as organizational performance or national performance which are higher level variables. The work related activities expected of an employee and how well those activities were executed. Many business personnel directors assess the job performance of each employee on an annual or quarterly basis in order to help them identify suggested areas for improvement.
ATTITUDE: An attitude can be defined as a positive or negative evaluation of people, objects, event, activities, ideas, or just about anything in your environment, but there is debate about precise definitions. Attitude is a predisposition or a tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain idea, object, person, or situation. Attitude influences an individual's choice of action, and responses to challenges, incentives, and rewards.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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