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1.1 Background of the study
It is an indisputable fact that education is a no do without in the development of a nation’s economy. But a perfect and complete education is achieved when one head, heart and hands are trained. Meanwhile among all these, the most important is the training of the hands because with that of the head and heart but without the one of hands, one cannot display. Secondly, it is what the nation needs to develop its economy to a state of self-reliance, independence on foreign expertise and be industrialized which is the heart cry of every nation.But what go on in the tertiary institutions are the training of head and heart. Thus the introductions of industrial training (I.T) which will help actualize the training of the hands and make the students competent enough in facing the tasks ahead.Moreover, industrial training (I.T) participation has become a necessary pre-condition for the award of diploma in the polytechnic set up.The practice of subjecting students to more theoretical background of real life situations as against the practical orientation has become highly unacceptable in the Nigerian society today. Many students with the theoretical orientation end up unemployed and the number keeps increasing exponentially. Based on the preliminary field discussions, it was gathered that, the unemployment situation in the country can be attributed to the changing focus of employers. The depreciation of the Nigerian currency and other macro-economic factors which are beyond the control of the employer is been given less attention when dealing with cost reduction. Rather, employers are now focusing on micro economic factors’ within their control to manage their operational costs. Every business owner prefers to engage the services of versatile people so that they can benefits from their theoretical knowledge as well as practical experiences. This brings to mind the characteristics of a versatile graduate in Nigeria. Obviously, graduates become highly employable if they are doctored with a mixture of theory and practical. Many tertiary institutions in the country have adopted industrial training as a module so that students could have practical exposure whiles in school. In line with employers’ expectations, students would have the feel of real life situations before they graduate. According to Stuliff industrial exposure gives the academics a chance to seek inputs and feedback from practicing professionals who can provide valuable insight into the skills and abilities students would need in their career. It is also an opportunity for students to personally practice the theoretical models in the classroom to enhance their chances of securing employment after graduation. In addition to this advantage, students are re-shaped perceptually and psychologically to be on top of any practical encounter. This psychological disposition serves as a bridge between the world of theoretical learning and practical exposure. In Nigeria, Industrial training for students has not achieved the expected results due to some challenges. It was discovered that inappropriate placement of students and poor supervision during training, reluctance to allow students to use industrial facilities for training have contributed to the ineffectiveness of industrial training. Since employers are looking beyond thegraduate’s academic knowledge, students who are hit by these short comings become non-competitive. It is however believed that, when industrial training produces favorable effect on graduate’s employability, stakeholders would assist in the eradication of the challenges indicated above. Another motivation for this research work was derived from the fact that some developed nations have realized the need to augment the traditional education programs.
Several attempts have been made by successive government in Nigeria from time immemorial to empower the youth with employable skills with a view to alleviating unemployment and poverty. For instance the establishment of National Poverty Eradication Program (NAPEP) 2000/2001, Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) 1988/89, and National Directorate of Employment (NDE) 1986, among others are government efforts towards eradicating joblessness, unemployment and poverty among the people. However, all these programs and government interventions seem not to address the real foundational problem which is hidden in the Nigerian education system and its products. The Polytechnic education in Nigeria is established to impart the youths with practical and employable skills. Regrettably however, contrary seems to be the situation. Teaming number of polytechnic graduates are unemployed and jobless. This scenario is not far-fetched from the fact that they were ill-equipped with entrepreneurial skills in the course of their education. Thus there is need to assess acquisition of entrepreneurial skills by prospective students of polytechnics in the State of Osun, Nigeria with a view to finding out the strengths or weaknesses of polytechnic education in equipping the Nigerian youths with necessary and relevant employable skills. Hence, this study becomes very germane. The polytechnic education in Nigeria as in other parts of the world is established with a view to imparting relevant and necessary work skills in prospective students. Every course of study in Nigeria polytechnics has potential for entrepreneurship. It is, however, regrettable that most Nigerian youths, who attend polytechnics, lack entrepreneurial skills which could make them to be employable or self-employed/self-reliant after their graduation from school. Kitzer (2007) defined entrepreneurship as a process in which individuals pursue opportunities, fulfilling needs and wants through innovations, together with the attendant risks. According to Klaipeda Business School (2009) Entrepreneurship is defined as the main skill necessary in order to conform to the conditions of the ever-changing knowledge and information society. Nwanaka and Amaechule (2011) are of the view that Nigeria’s social and economic problems will be drastically reduced if students are given adequate vocational training in skills, raw materials, machineries and equipment. According to Maigida, Saba &Namkere (2013), the modern world economy requires innovation, training, reinventing in vocational education and entrepreneurship training that will significantly favor the youth. World over, there is always job for the skilled. Dhenak (2010) laments that though there is abundant labor supply there is generally scarcity of skills at all levels of socio-economy. There is no doubt that joblessness and unemployment continue to grow unabated in Nigeria due to poor acquisition of entrepreneurial/vocational skills. According to Osemeke (2012), a skill implies an ability which can be developed, not necessarily inborn, and which is manifested in performance, not merely in potential.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
Not until dissatisfaction and doubt is raised and solution needed, a problem is not said to be recognized.There has been this wrong motives and lack of interest recognized among students who are due for one-year industrial training, consequently upon the like and dislike they have for it. This is due to the positive and negative effects they have found this I.T to have on them.
Therefore the emergence of this study- the effects of Industrial Training (I.T) on HND I students (a finding on whether the positive effects are greater than the negative effects or otherwise)
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
In the course of this study, I intend to achieve the following:
1. Find out what the students feel about the one-year industrial training (I.T).
2. Find out whether the positive effects of one-year industrial training are greater than those of its negative.
3. to evaluate the effect of 1 year industrial training program on the employability of the student
4. to ascertain the impact of industrial training on the academic performance of HND1 student.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
To aid the completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher
H0:industrial training program does not have any impact on the employability of the student
H1:industrial training program does have any impact on the employability of the student
H02:industrial training program does not have any impact on the academic performance of HND1 student
H2:industrial training program have impact on the academic performance of HND1 student
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.
This study will be beneficial to the students, industries, institution, government and society.
If the study shows that the positive effects are greater than the negative effects, then the students will go for I.T with right motives thereby being useful to the industries, representing the institution well (even in future), fulfilling the desire of the government and meeting the needs of the poor masses (society).
But if otherwise, then it should be looked into whether to scrap it and provide an alternative measure or not.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY.
For the effectiveness of this study, I have wished to carryout this research in one department in each of the schools of the institution – Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri.
That is, the population consists of:
One department in School of Industrial and Applied Sciences.
One department is School of Engineering Technology.
One department in School of Environmental Technology
One department in School of Business.
The period considered in the study is 2007/2008 academic session.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Some weaknesses tried to hinder me form carrying out this study. But with more effort, I was able to do my best.
The difficulties resulted from financial constraints, material limitation (i.e. unavailability of materials) and lack of time due to the shortness of the semester and other works on the table.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Training is teaching, or developing in oneself or others, any skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. Training has specific goals of improving one's capability, capacity, productivity and performance.
A student or pupil is a learner or someone who attends an educational institution. In Britain, those attending university are termed "students". In the United States, and more recently also in Britain, the term "student" is applied to both categories: school and university students.
A Higher National Diploma is a higher education qualification of the United Kingdom. A qualification of the same title is also offered in Argentina, Finland, India, Malta, Nigeria, Ghana and some other countries with British ties
1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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