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1.1      Background of the study

Education not only provides knowledge and skills, but also inculcates values, training of instincts, fostering right attitude and habits. According to Muhammed and Muhammed (2010) they are of the opinion that, cultural heritage and values are transmitted from one generation to another through Education. The responsibility of training a child always lies in the hand of the parents. This is congruent with the common assertion by sociologist that education can be an instrument of cultural change which is being taught from home is relevant in this discuss. It is not out of place to imagine that parental socio-economic background can have possible effects on the academic achievement of children in school. Whatsoever affect the developmental stage of children would possibly affect their education or disposition to it. Parental status is one of such variables. When a woman’s nutritional status improves, so too does the nutrition of her young children “Parents of different occupational classes often have different styles of child rearing, different ways of disciplining their children and different ways of reacting to their children. These differences do not express themselves consistently as expected in the case of every families, rather they influence the average tendencies of families for different occupational classes.” (Rothestein, 2004). In line with the above assertion, Hill et al. (2004) had also argued that socio-economic status of parents do not only affect the academic performance, but also makes it possible for children from low background to compete with their counterparts from high socio-economic background under the same academic environment. Moreover, Smith, Fagan and Ulvund (2002) had asserted that significant predictor of intellectual performance at age of 8 years included parental socio-economic status (SES). In the same vein, other researchers had posited that parental SES could affect school children as to bring about flexibility to adjustment to the different school schedules (Guerin et al., 2001). The same view is shared by Machebe (2012), in her research, concluded that, parental socio-economic status could influence academic performance of their children at school. In a previous local finding in Nigeria, Oni (2007) and Omoegun (2007) had averred that there is significant difference between the rates of deviant behavior among students from high and low socio-economic statuses. The health status of the children which could also be traceable to parental socio-economic background can be another factor that can affect the academic performance of the students, Adewale (2002) had reported that in a rural community where nutritional status is relatively low and health problems are prevalent, children academic performance is greatly hindered. This assertion is again hinged on nature of parental socio-economic background. Moreover, Eze (1996) had opined that when a child get proper nutrition, health care, stimulation during pre-school years, the ability to interact with and take optimal advantage of the full complement of resources offered by a formal learning environment is enhanced. Educational activities are geared towards ensuring that students achieve mastery of educational objectives. In school , the extent to which these objectives have been achieved, is determined by their level of peer pressure, time management as students’ success are reflected in their academic performance. Peers play a large role in the social and emotional development of adolescents Allen (2005). Their influence begins at an early age and increases through the teenage years, it is natural, healthy and important for adolescent to have and rely on friends as they grow and mature. A peer could be any one you look up to in behaviour or someone who you would think is equal to your age or ability (Hardcastle, 2002). On the other hand, the term “pressure” implies the process that influence people to do something that they might not otherwise choose to do. According to Hartney, (2011) peer pressure refers to the influences that peers can have on each other. Peer pressure is emotional or mental forces from people belonging to the same social group (such as age, grade or status) to act or behave in a manner similar to themselves (Weinfied 2010). Jones, (2010) defined peer pressure as the ability of people from the same social rank or age to influence another of same age, bracket peer pressure is usually associated with teens although its influence is not confined to teenagers alone. Most secondary schools students in general and those in Calabar south in particular are in the adolescent stage. The adolescent has needs and problems that arise from organic, psychological and social pressures. These pressures in turn exert influences on them, which make them exhibit behaviors that are not in consonance with societal norms leading to delinquency. According to Isangedighi (1998) delinquency is a behavior that involves retraction from rules that govern behavior among adolescents. Delinquency on the whole is not an easy concept to define due to it complex characteristics. However, delinquency has been from time immemorial a social evil. These delinquent behaviors consist of acts that violate the laws of the society. Onyejiaku (1991) further stress that delinquency covers an enormous rage on crime including felonies such as robbery, assault or misdemeanors such as loitering and behaviors that are illegal. The manifestation of delinquency among secondary school students has remained an age long problem in the Nigerian secondary school system. In a study carried out by Ajake, Etuk and Omori (2010) shows that there is a high rate of school complains about students delinquency. At this juncture, family has an enormous task of ensuring that the adolescent grows appropriately in this regard. The extent to which parents and other adults in the family make provision for the holistic growth of their adolescent, with the view of curbing societal ills has generated a lot of concern in our contemporary Nigeria as a whole and Enugu state in particular. Increased attention is being given to the ability of individual and family to successfully remedy the negative impact on delinquency.


Socio economic status is relevant to all realms of behavioral and social sciences. A family’s socioeconomic status is based on family income, parental educational level, social contacts within the groups association and the community perception of the family). Education does not only provide knowledge and skills needed for life but also inculcates values, training of instincts, fostering the right attitude and habits. Cultural heritage and values are transmitted from one generation to the next through education. Education principally reflects a social process and implies social framework for development, whether societal or individually. Since the learning process works on a lot of possibilities, the educational goals should be suggestive and flexible to incorporate revision in order to meet the requirement of society and of the child who lives and grows in it, in retrospect to the original purpose of education, parental socio-economic status has in most cases influence the student behavior and attitude towards education. It is in view of this that the researcher intends to investigate the effect of parental socio-economic status on the delinquent behavior of student in Idemili south Local government area of Anambra state.


The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of parental socio-economic status on the delinquent behavior of students in Idemili south local government area in Anambra state; but to aid the completion of the study, the following sub-objective is put forward by the researcher to be accomplished in cause of the study;

i)             To ascertain the effect of parental socio-economic status on students’ academic performance

ii)           To investigate the impact of delinquent behavior and academic performance of students

iii)          To ascertain the relationship between the socio-economic status of parent and student delinquent behavior

iv)         To proffer suggested solution to the identified problems above


To aid the completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher

H0: parental socio-economic status has on effect on students’ academic performance

H1: parental socio-economic status has effect on students’ academic performance

H02: there is no significant relationship between socio-economic status of parent and student delinquent behavior

H2: there is a significant relationship between socio-economic status of parent and student delinquent behavior


At the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance to the management of schools as the study seek to enumerate the influence of parental socio-economic status on the behavior of secondary school students, the study will also be of great importance to parents of these wards as the study seek to enumerate the role parent socio-economic status play on the delinquent behavior of the student. The study will also be of importance to researchers who intend to embark on study in similar topic, finally the study will be of importance to student teachers and the general public as the study will add to the pool of literature already available.


The scope of the study covers the effect of parental socio-economic status on the delinquent behavior of students in Idemili south local government. But in the cause of the researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

(a)Availability of research material: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.

(b)Time: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.   

(c)Finance: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.


Socio-economic status

Socioeconomic status (SES) is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family'seconomic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation.


A juvenile delinquent, often shortened as delinquent is a young person (under 18) who fails to do that which is required by law; see juvenile delinquency.


Behavior or behavior is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organismssystems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether internal or external, conscious or subconsciousovert or covert, and voluntary or involuntary


This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study etc. Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter.     Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design and methods adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

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