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Nursing education, including the individual nurse educator, has a responsibility to society and to students for providing quality education, for maintaining the highest academic standards, for the proficient use of teaching strategies and for ensuring adequate support to learners. This study aimed at investigating factors influencing teaching and learning at College of nursing and midwifery sciences, sokoto. The objectives included the following possible factors that may have contributed towards the academic performances of students:
· Approaches to teaching and learning;
· Motivation and learning;
· Language barrier to learning;
A non-experimental, descriptive research design was applied with a quantitative approach. The target population (N = 356) consisted of nursing students following the course leading to registration as a professional nurse. Stratified sampling was used to select the sample of participants (n = 70). A structured questionnaire, consisting of predominantly closed questions, was used for the collection of data. The outcomes from this study showed that academic support classes, when offered, were always attended by (n = 42/60%) and most times by (n = 24/34.2%).
The majority of the participants were able to cope with the workload most of the time (n = 43/61.4%), whilst (n = 6/8.6%) and (n = 2/2.9%) of the participants indicated coping seldom and never, respectively. The result of the study showed that most of the students spent the more time on their studies per day (3 and >3 hours). Few students (n = 5/7.1%) and (n = 13/18.6%) spent less time on their studies daily. Recommendations made by participants included the following:
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION.
1.1. Background of the study.
Teaching and learning is as old as human beings on earth. It is carried out not only by human beings but also by animals to teach their young ones to adjust successfully within their environments (Aggarwal, 2006). If the teaching and learning is effective, the learner will be able to make the best use of the things around him/her in the world.
In the past few years, Nursing education, as many other fields of study is undergoing fundamental changes in order to meet the needs of rapidly changing society. (Slevin and Lovery, 1991;Quinn, 1995). These changes entail the adoption of new roles for all those who are actively involved in nursing education: teachers, tutors, practitioners who act as mentors or preceptors for students in clinical practices. The significance influence on these changes has been the application of different teaching theories in nursing. In particular, Carl Rogers’ humanistic theory (1969) initiated a new approach to teaching and learning, widely used by many teachers and has been adopted as a philosophy by many academic institutions worldwide. Roger (1983) believed in the innate potentials for growth and development of each single individual. Bradshaw, (1989) supported the notion that the teachers’ role should be concerned with the facilitation of the learning experience.
A major challenge faces higher educational institutions on how to achieve quality outcomes for students in an increasingly globalised and competitive environment. Education is a reciprocal process during which the learners acquire knowledge, ability and self awareness in gaining diversity of thoughts. Nursing education is designed to educate and train the student nurse to become competent and qualified professional nurses (Melish, Brink and Paton, 2009). In order to
provide skilled nursing and midwifery care, professional nurses and midwives must be educated and trained by qualified teachers to master certain skills and be knowledgeable about the science of nursing. They need appropriate knowledge and skills to enable them to deliver safe and competent care to their patients (Leufer, 2007).
Professional nurses enter the program with different expectation of what is to be learnt, different intellectual skills, types and levels of motivation and different interests. Furthermore, professional nurses and midwives also come from different cultures and backgrounds. Consequently, their educators/teachers who are responsible for educating and training them have a challenging task. So, this work “factors influencing teaching and learning in College of Nursing and Midwifery Sciences, Sokoto” is embarked on, to; highlight those general and remote factors that play major role in determining how teaching and learning takes place in College of Nursing and Midwifery sciences, Sokoto.
1.2. Statement of problems.
A decline in academic performance of students especially at College of Nursing and midwifery sciences, Sokoto was observed which adversely influence the admission and graduation of students. Recently, there has been problem of indexing, following the fact that students drop out of their classes to join their junior colleagues because they could not pass the number of courses required for promotion. This makes the number of students in those classes to be more than those that should be indexed by the nursing and midwifery council of Nigeria for the final qualifying examination (only 50 candidates are eligible to get index number per council exam). Also, this problem has pushed the school to take a difficult decision of admitting less number of students per session in order to cut down on this effect. Other factors exist which may
be influencing or affecting teaching and learning and then academic performance. Therefore, it becomes essential to investigate possible factors affecting teaching and learning of the student of School of Nursing, Sokoto. The purpose of this research is to investigate the factors influencing teaching and learning of nursing students at College of Nursing and Midwifery Sciences, Sokoto
1.3. Objectives of the study.
The general objective of the study is to investigate the factors that affect the teaching and learning in the College of Nursing and Midwifery Sciences, Sokoto. Specifically, the objectives are to,
i. Identify the various factors affecting teaching and learning in College of Nursing and Midwifery Sciences, Sokoto.
ii. Examine teachers’ attitude towards the teaching and learning in College of Nursing and Midwifery Sciences, Sokoto.
iii. Determine whether language barrier affects the teaching and learning in College of Nursing and Midwifery Sciences, Sokoto.
1.4. Research question.
i. What are the various factors that affect teaching and learning in college of nursing and midwifery sciences, Sokoto?
ii. What are the teachers’ attitude towards teaching and learning in college of nursing and midwifery sciences, Sokoto?
iii. Does language barrier affect teaching and learning in College of Nursing and Midwifery Science, Sokoto?
1.5 Significance of the study.
It is the responsibility of this institution to train and develop students in nursing midwifery. Therefore when attrition rates are decreasing and academic performance declining, it becomes necessary to investigate the reason. In order to do so, imputes has to be obtained from students to identify their learning experiences, both positive and negative. Students may learn what the teacher intended them to learn or they may not. Furthermore, teachers are fallible, they may not always teach correctly, which indicates that in learning situations, students may learn correctly what the teacher taught incorrectly or may learn incorrectly what the teacher taught correctly.
The outcome of this study is aimed at providing policy makers in nursing education with flexibility of opinion in choice of policy, implementation, reformation, adoption and application of policy, It will help curriculum designers to improve on their educational ideas, contents, methods and organization as it relates nursing education, also, the higher education and nursing and midwifery council of Nigeria will benefit by understanding the underlying problems concerning nursing education in this region and then proffer possible ways of solving the problems.
1.6 Scope of the study.
This work is all about investigating the factors influencing teaching and learning in college of nursing and midwifery sciences, Sokoto. It is designed to elicit responses from staff, tutors, clinical instructors and students of College of Nursing and Midwifery Sciences, Sokoto, on the factors influencing teaching and learning in College of Nursing and Midwifery Sciences, Sokoto. The variables to be studied include: the learning environment, the teaching strategies, language
barrier, students attitude to learning, teachers attitude to teaching, academic and clinical support, etc.
The study will be carried out at the college of nursing and midwifery sciences, Sokoto, using the students of nursing as the sample. Also, the pilot study will be done at the School of nursing, UDUTH and their results compared.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS.
Teaching is a process of education aimed at helping another person to learn. It is also defined as an activity aimed at the achievement of learning and practiced in such a manner as to respect the learners’ intellectual integrity and capacity for independent judgment. It a phenomenon with different types of activities occurring at each stage or phase.
Learning is any relatively change of behavior which is a result of experience and which causes people to face later situations differently. Learning may also be defined as the process by which we acquire and retain attitudes, knowledge, understanding, skills and capabilities that cannot be attributed to inherited behaviors patterns or physical growth. Learning is as acquisition of a potential for re- adjustment within individual persons for improving the individual and his society.
This is the science aspect of teaching based on a body of knowledge derived from the theories and research from natural and social science disciplines such as microbiology, anatomy, physiology, psychology, sociology, speech communication, etc.
Nursing/ Midwifery students.
Student refers to a person studying at a place of education, denoting someone who is studying to enter a particular profession, e.g., a student professional Nurse/midwife. The student in nursing/midwifery education is socially mature, but is still developing within the context of Nursing and Midwifery.
The term curriculum derived from the Latin words “curri”, meaning “to run” and “colus”, meaning “straight line”. Literarily, curriculum means running straight line. Applied to education, curriculum means organizing and coordinating subjects of study to achieve definite goals. A curriculum provides the means of delivering a course of study, designed to support the achievement of intended outcomes, which is implemented for both the school and the students, through teaching strategies and learning activities.
In this context, attrition refers to the loss of individual from nursing programs or departure/withdrawal of an individual from a nursing program without successful completion
thereof. Attrition is also seen as the difference between the numbers of students beginning the program and the number that completes it.
Mentors/ Clinical instructors.
Mentors are practitioners that facilitate learning, supervise and assess students in the clinical setting and have set standards to support learning in practice, placed with the responsibility to provide support and guidance and act as positive role models to ensure that at the end of the pre-registration nursing course students are fit for purpose.
• English as a subject / module during the first year was proposed.
• The promotion of the proficiency in English, through interaction between English speaking learners and students with English as second language, should be encouraged.
• Regular updates of the contents of the curriculum.
• The importance of identifying ‘at risk’ students and pro-actively introducing a mentorship program.
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